Feminae: Medieval Women and Gender Index


137 Record(s) Found in our database

Search Results

1. Record Number: 36088
Author(s): Ermine de Reims
Contributor(s):
Title : Appendix: The Visions of Ermine de Reims
Source: The Strange Case of Ermine de Reims: A Medieval Woman between Demons and Saints. Renate Blumenfeld-Kosinski .   University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015.  Pages 157 - 186.
Year of Publication: 2015.

2. Record Number: 36620
Author(s): Ward, Jennifer
Contributor(s):
Title : Elizabeth de Burgh, Lady of Clare (1295-1360): Household and Other Records
Source: Elizabeth de Burgh, Lady of Clare (1295-1360): Household and Other Records. Jennifer Ward .   Boydell Press, 2014.  Pages 1 - 154.
Year of Publication: 2014.

3. Record Number: 25137
Author(s): Brizio, Elena
Contributor(s):
Title : In the Shadow of the Campo: Sienese Women and Their Families (c. 1400- 1600) [Although Siena issued statutes limiting women's agency, Sienese women found ways to exercise power over property to benefit their families and themselves. Women also served as executors of wills and guardians of minor children. Sienese women occasionally played political roles, especially when the men of the family were in exile. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: Across the Religious Divide: Women, Property, and Law in the Wider Mediterranean (ca. 1300- 1800).   Edited by Jutta Gisela Sperling and Shona Kelly Wray .   Routledge, 2010.  Pages 122 - 136.
Year of Publication: 2010.

4. Record Number: 28319
Author(s):
Contributor(s): Jefferson, Lisa, translator
Title : “This ordinance was revised during the term of office of the aforesaid wardens… And it is fully agreed that all widows of the mistery who wish to live as a feme-sole and carry on the trade with their household, who are under the governance of the mistery, or those who are with husbands who are men of the same mistery and under its governance, shall enjoy the full benefit of the aforesaid ordinance.” [1417, folio 71v.]
Source: The Medieval Account Books of the Mercers of London: An Edition and Translation. Volume 1   Edited by Lisa Jefferson .   Ashgate, 2009.  Pages 296 - 299.
Year of Publication: 2009.

5. Record Number: 28350
Author(s):
Contributor(s): Gallagher, Eric James, translator
Title : Adam Bulloc and Margery his wife claim against Matilda who was the wife of Adam… [Item 1006 from Ely concerns the woman Matilda whose claim to land was challenged by Adam and Margery Bulloc from whom Matilda’s husband had held the acres in villeinage. Matilda as a widow responded that she had wardship over her son John who was underage. The couple would need to wait until John was an adult before suing him for the land. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: The Civil Pleas of the Suffolk Eyre of 1240.   Edited by Eric James Gallagher Suffolk Records Society, 52.   Boydell Press , 2009.  Pages 208 - 208.
Year of Publication: 2009.

6. Record Number: 28351
Author(s):
Contributor(s): Gallagher, Eric James, translator
Title : Geoffrey de Say and Alina his wife claim against Alexander de Vallibus the advowson of the church of Cringlefor… [Item 153 from Cattishall is the first of several pleas in which Alina tried to recover her dower from a previous marriage to Hubert de Vallibus. See related items 475, 526, 727, and 1038. In these cases Alina did not recover any land, but Eric Gallagher cites evidence from the “Curia Regis” rolls that Alina and Geoffrey did win one plea eventually (p. xliii). Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: The Civil Pleas of the Suffolk Eyre of 1240.   Edited by Eric James Gallagher Suffolk Records Society, 52.   Boydell Press , 2009.  Pages 21 - 21.
Year of Publication: 2009.

7. Record Number: 24045
Author(s): Schuchman, Anne M.
Contributor(s):
Title : "Within the Walls of Paradise": Space and Community in the "Vita" of Umiliana de' Cerchi [Umiliata dei Cerchi was a 13th century Florentine laywoman who, as a widow, lived a religious life in her family’s tower house. Franciscan friar Vito da Cortona wrote her “vita” shortly after her death in 1246. Schuchman focuses on the text's description of Umiliata’s life in the tower as a substitute for joining a monastery. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: Negotiating Community and Difference in Medieval Europe: Gender, Power, Patronage, and the Authority of Religion in Latin Christendom.   Edited by Katherine Allen Smith and Scott Wells Studies in the History of Christian Traditions .   Brill, 2009.  Pages 49 - 64.
Year of Publication: 2009.

8. Record Number: 20611
Author(s): Klinck, Anne L
Contributor(s):
Title : To have and to hold: The Bridewealth of Wives and the "Mund" of Widows in Anglo-Saxon England [The author examine women's status, particularly brides and widows, and the control that men exercised over them. Klinck brings in Anglo-Saxon vocabulary from legal sources as evidence. She also considers recent historiographic developments. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Nottingham Medieval Studies , 51., ( 2007):  Pages 231 - 245.
Year of Publication: 2007.

9. Record Number: 14647
Author(s): Benedetti, Marina.
Contributor(s):
Title : Donne valdesi nelle fonti della repressione tra XV e VI secolo [In 1487 the papacy authorized a crusade against the Waldensians in Dauphiny. Following this campaign, inquisitors strove to eradicate heresy. Among those questioned were several women, some themselves considered heretical, not just kin of heretics. These testimonies cast light on the impact of the women who survived the crusade, some of them widows of the slain. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Chiesa, vita religiosa, societa nel Medioevo italiano: Studi offerti a Giuseppina De Sandre Gasparini.   Edited by Mariaclara Rossi and Gian Maria Varanini .   Herder, 2005. Nottingham Medieval Studies , 51., ( 2007):  Pages 33 - 51.
Year of Publication: 2005.

10. Record Number: 21343
Author(s): Bellavitis, Anna
Contributor(s):
Title : A proposito di "Men and Women in Renaissance Venice" di Stanley Chojnacki
Source: Quaderni Storici , 118., 1 ( 2005):  Pages 203 - 238.
Year of Publication: 2005.

11. Record Number: 11758
Author(s): Heller, Ena Giurescu.
Contributor(s):
Title : Access to Salvation: The Place (and Space) of Women Patrons in Fourteenth-century Florence [The author provides a case study of Monna Andrea Acciaiuoli's patronage of her husband's family chapel in Santa Maria Novella. She commissioned the glass windows and the altarpiece. Heller raises the question of whether Monna Andrea and other female patrons had access to these family chapels beyond the rood screen. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Women's Space: Patronage, Place, and Gender in the Medieval Church.   Edited by Virginia Chieffo Raguin and Sarah Stanbury .   State University of New York Press, 2005. Nottingham Medieval Studies , 51., ( 2007):  Pages 161 - 183.
Year of Publication: 2005.

12. Record Number: 14142
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : The Dilemma of the Widow of Property for Late Medieval London [The author argues that wealthy widows, with both capital and property, served as conduits of wealth. Widows tended to remarry within the same social group to which their previous husbands had belonged, strengthening guild and status solidarities. Title n
Source: The Medieval Marriage Scene: Prudence, Passion, Policy.   Edited by Sherry Roush and Cristelle L. Baskins .   Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2005. Nottingham Medieval Studies , 51., ( 2007):  Pages 135 - 146.
Year of Publication: 2005.

13. Record Number: 14120
Author(s): Welzel, Barbara.
Contributor(s):
Title : Widowhood: Margaret of York and Margaret of Austria [The author briefly discusses the two women's roles as protectors of their country. They are sometimes figured as the Biblical Judith, but in portraits Margaret of York is represented as a married woman. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Women of Distinction: Margaret of York | Margaret of Austria.   Edited by Dagmar Eichberger .   Brepols, 2005. Nottingham Medieval Studies , 51., ( 2007):  Pages 102 - 113.
Year of Publication: 2005.

14. Record Number: 14136
Author(s): Eisenbichler, Konrad.
Contributor(s):
Title : At Marriage End : Girolamo Savonarola and the Question of Widows in Late Fifteenth-Century Florence [The author discusses the problems that widows encountered and considers the alternatives presented by the Dominican friar Savonarola in his "Book of the Widow's Life." His concern was that widows live in a way that was economically as well as spiritually
Source: The Medieval Marriage Scene: Prudence, Passion, Policy.   Edited by Sherry Roush and Cristelle L. Baskins .   Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2005. Nottingham Medieval Studies , 51., ( 2007):  Pages 67 - 80.
Year of Publication: 2005.

15. Record Number: 12610
Author(s): Ashley, Kathleen.
Contributor(s):
Title : Material and Symbolic Gift-Giving: Clothes in English and French Wills [The practice of bequeathing clothing to friends, relatives, and others in one’s will was common in late medieval and Early Modern England and France. Major differences in how clothing is dispensed in the wills arise not when one compares the gender of particular testators but the socioeconomic class of the individual. Among lower class people, items of clothing function as commodities (objects of use or value to be passed along), but for bourgeois and aristocratic people clothing carries both material and symbolic value. In these social classes, giving clothing can signify a sentimental attachment to a person or it can constitute a spiritual act of almsgiving. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Medieval Fabrications: Dress, Textiles, Clothwork, and Other Cultural Imaginings.   Edited by E. Jane Burns .   Palgrave, 2004. Quaderni Storici , 118., 1 ( 2005):  Pages 137 - 146.
Year of Publication: 2004.

16. Record Number: 21331
Author(s): Soldani, Maria Elisa
Contributor(s):
Title : Alleanze matrimoniali e strategie patrimoniali nella Barcellona del XV secolo: i mercanti toscani fra integrazione e consolidamento della ricchezza [Italian merchants resident in Barcelona might choose to stay, becoming permanent residents, or return home later. These decisions affected their strategies for marriage, both for themselves and their children. Intermarriages with citizen families of Barcelona helped Italian families assimilate. Women, especially widows, played important roles in the social and economic life of the Italian merchant community. The appendix presents documents in the divorce of Joan Boffill and Giovanna della Setta, 1455. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: Archivio Storico Italiano , 162., 1 ( 2004):  Pages 667 - 696.
Year of Publication: 2004.

17. Record Number: 28213
Author(s): Brizio, Elena
Contributor(s):
Title : La dote nella normativa statutaria e nella pratica testamentaria Senese (fine sec. XII- metà sec. XIV) [Sienese law imposed limits on women's control of property, but women were able to enjoy some legal protections. These included having their dowries protected from an insolvent husband and restitution of dowry when widowed. Women also could be guardians of minor children, and they disposed of property through wills. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: Bullettino Senese di Storia Patria , 111., ( 2004):  Pages 9 - 39.
Year of Publication: 2004.

18. Record Number: 8706
Author(s): de Trafford, Claire.
Contributor(s):
Title : Share and Share Alike? The Marriage Portion, Inheritance, and Family Politics [The author explores the use of the marriage portion or "maritagium" given by the bride's family, usually in the form of land or rents. Since wives had a say in the disposal of their "maritagia," it tended to increase their status in the family. Also there was an effort to provide for all children, including daughters, rather than the later emphasis on a sole male heir with primogeniture. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Studies on Medieval and Early Modern Women: Pawns or Players?   Edited by Christine Meek and Catherine Lawless .   Four Courts Press, 2003. Past and Present , 178., (February 2003):  Pages 36 - 48.
Year of Publication: 2003.

19. Record Number: 20716
Author(s): Barcellona, Rossana
Contributor(s):
Title : Le vedove cristiane tra i Padri e le norme [In fifth and sixth century Gaul, widows were set apart by some clergy with a ceremony similar to the veiling of virgins. Widows might be indigent or members of the highest social groups with ascetic impulses. The Fathers of the Church created a theology of widowhood, much of it addressed to widows they knew. A growing body of ecclesiastical regulations gradually marginalized an actual order of widows. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: Annuarium Historiae Conciliorum , 35., ( 2003):  Pages 167 - 185.
Year of Publication: 2003.

20. Record Number: 8708
Author(s): Kenny, Gillian.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Power of Dower: The Importance of Dower in the Lives of Medieval Women in Ireland [The author argues that the financial resources made available to widows from their dowers transformed their lives. They took over many of their husbands' roles including bringing suits in court and donating to local religious institutions. Both the widows and their heirs sometimes had difficulties accustoming themselves to the changes in power. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Studies on Medieval and Early Modern Women: Pawns or Players?   Edited by Christine Meek and Catherine Lawless .   Four Courts Press, 2003. Bullettino Senese di Storia Patria , 111., ( 2004):  Pages 59 - 74.
Year of Publication: 2003.

21. Record Number: 10649
Author(s): MacLean, Simon.
Contributor(s):
Title : Queenship, Nunneries, and Royal Widowhood in Carolingian Europe [The author traces the political implications of these three phenomena which came together very strongly during the second half of the ninth century. MacLean uses case studies of Empress Richgard's management of the monastery of Andlau in Alsace and of Empress Engelberga's administration of S. Sisto in Piacenza, Italy. In both instances the royal widows drew on natal family ties and regional connections to establish their authority. MacLean suggests that the rise in queenly influence at this period was in part an effort to establish a moral role for queens whose reputations had been badly tarnished by such events as Lothar's divorce. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: Past and Present , 178., (February 2003):  Pages 3 - 38.
Year of Publication: 2003.

22. Record Number: 6402
Author(s): Curtis, Liane.
Contributor(s):
Title : Christine de Pizan and "Dueil Angoisseux" [When Christine de Pizan began her literary carrier, writing the "Cent Ballades," she exploited her widow's status, writing in terms of lamentation and long suffering; these were supposed to come naturally to women, especially to widows, removed by misfortune from contamination though sexual activity; "Dueil Angoisseux" was one of these ballades; the poem, an expressions of a widow's grief, was set to music by Binchois (Gilles); both Christine's text and Binchois' music exploit effectively a topic, suffering, in which women were believed to be superior to men; the Appendix presents the French text of "Dueil Angoisseux" along with an English translation].
Source: Gender, Sexuality, and Early Music.   Edited by Todd M. Borgerding .   Routledge, 2002. Annuarium Historiae Conciliorum , 35., ( 2003):  Pages 265 - 282.
Year of Publication: 2002.

23. Record Number: 8307
Author(s): Gaunt, Simon.
Contributor(s):
Title : Widows, Consecrated Virgins, and Deaconesses in Ancient Gaul [The author argues that the tradition of female ministries in which women served the Church in official capacities took various forms in Gaul including deaconesses, blessed virgins, and chaste widows. All of these women were celibate but took part in the life of the Church and did not live in monasteries. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Magistra , 8., 1 (Summer 2002):  Pages 53 - 84.
Year of Publication: 2002.

24. Record Number: 8727
Author(s): Jussen, Bernhard.
Contributor(s):
Title : Virgins- Widows- Spouses: On the Language of Moral Distinction as Applied to Women and Men in the Middle Ages
Source: History of the Family , 7., 1 ( 2002):  Pages 13 - 32.
Year of Publication: 2002.

25. Record Number: 10210
Author(s): Talbot, Alice-Mary.
Contributor(s):
Title : Building Activity in Constantinople under Andronikos II: The Role of Women Patrons in the Construction and Restoration of Monasteries [The author notes the substantial number of both female patrons and women's monasteries during this period. The patrons are connected to the royal family by blood or marriage. Individuals profiled include Theodora Raoulaina, Maria Palaiologina, Theodora Synadene, Irene Choumnaina Palaiologina, and Maria Doukaina Komnene Branaina Palaiologina. The women were all widows at the time of their donations and gave substantial gifts for a monastery to which they could retire and where they could bury their family members. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Byzantine Constantinople: Monuments, Topography, and Everyday Life.   Edited by Nevra Necipoglu. The Medieval Mediterranean: Peoples, Economies, and Cultures, 400-1453, Volume 33 Medieval Mediterranean, 33.   Brill, 2001. Northern History , 38., 2 (September 2001):  Pages 329 - 343.
Year of Publication: 2001.

26. Record Number: 6748
Author(s): Kuehn, Thomas.
Contributor(s):
Title : Daughters, Mothers, Wives, and Widows: Women as Legal Persons [The author traces women's legal agency across the life span; each phase had its limits even widowhood in which many women had to struggle for the return of their dowry or accept remarriage at their natal family's behest].
Source: Time, Space, and Women's Lives in Early Modern Europe.   Edited by Anne Jackson Schutte, Thomas Kuehn, and Silvana Seidel Menchi Sixteenth Century Essays and Studies, 57.   Truman State University Press, 2001. History of the Family , 7., 1 ( 2002):  Pages 97 - 115.
Year of Publication: 2001.

27. Record Number: 8728
Author(s): King, Andy.
Contributor(s):
Title : Jack Le Irish and the Abduction of Lady Clifford, November 1315: The Heiress and the Irishman [The author argues that Jack Le Irish was an Anglo-Irish soldier in service to Edward II who set his eyes on too high a prize (Maud de Clifford and her estates) for a mere man-at-arms. His methods, abduction and forced marriage, were used with many heiresses, but in this case Maud's relatives used their influence to have her rescued. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: Northern History , 38., 2 (September 2001):  Pages 187 - 195.
Year of Publication: 2001.

28. Record Number: 6747
Author(s): Chojnacki, Stanley.
Contributor(s):
Title : Getting Back the Dowry: Venice, c. 1360-1530 [the author explores the dowry system for the elite in Venice; he is particularly interested in the relationships within natal and marital families both in terms of widows seeking dowry restitution and for husbands-to-be seeking ways to guarantee their brides' dowries; in both cases the dowry system made women active and vital participants in familial networks].
Source: Time, Space, and Women's Lives in Early Modern Europe.   Edited by Anne Jackson Schutte, Thomas Kuehn, and Silvana Seidel Menchi Sixteenth Century Essays and Studies, 57.   Truman State University Press, 2001. Northern History , 38., 2 (September 2001):  Pages 77 - 96. Republished as Getting Back the Dowry. By Stanley Chojnacki. Women and Men in Renaissance Venice: Twelve Essays on Patrician Society. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000. Pages 95-111.
Year of Publication: 2001.

29. Record Number: 14583
Author(s): Russo, Maria Antonietta
Contributor(s):
Title : Sciacca, l'Infanta Eleonora e Guglielmo Peralta: tre nomi intrecciati in un'unica storia [Eleanor of Aragon, a niece of King Peter II of Sicily, married Guglielmo Peralta, count of Caltabellotta in Sicily. Eleanor played a prominent role in the affairs of the Peralta family after the deaths of her husband and of Nicola, their son. She was named guardian of her granddaughters in Nicola's will. Eleanor also was an important patron of monastic foundations. The appendix presents an edited version of Count Nicola's testament in Latin dated 1398. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: Schede medievali , 38., ( 2000):  Pages 277 - 294.
Year of Publication: 2000.

30. Record Number: 4578
Author(s): Stevenson, Barbara.
Contributor(s):
Title : Re-Visioning the Widow Christine de Pizan [The author argues that critics have misread Christine by concentrating on her writings that deal with the autobiographical].
Source: Crossing the Bridge: Comparative Essays on Medieval European and Heian Japanese Women Writers.   Edited by Barbara Stevenson and Cynthia Ho .   Palgrave, 2000. Northern History , 38., 2 (September 2001):  Pages 29 - 44.
Year of Publication: 2000.

31. Record Number: 16570
Author(s): Wilkinson, Louise.
Contributor(s):
Title : Pawn and Political Player: Observations on the Life of a Thirteenth-Century Countess
Source: Historical Research , 73., 181 (June 2000):  Pages 105 - 123.
Year of Publication: 2000.

32. Record Number: 4621
Author(s): Klein, Elka
Contributor(s):
Title : The Widow's Portion: Law, Custom, and Marital Property among Medieval Catalan Jews
Source: Viator , 31., ( 2000):  Pages 147 - 163.
Year of Publication: 2000.

33. Record Number: 4135
Author(s): Lawless, Catherine.
Contributor(s):
Title : A Widow of God? St. Anne and Representations of Widowhood in Fifteenth-century Florence
Source: Women in Renaissance and Early Modern Europe.   Edited by Christine Meek .   Four Courts Press, 2000. Viator , 31., ( 2000):  Pages 15 - 42.
Year of Publication: 2000.

34. Record Number: 4811
Author(s): Watson, Nicholas.
Contributor(s):
Title : Fashioning the Puritan Gentry-Woman's Devotion and Dissent in "Book to a Mother" [The author argues that the son who wrote a devotional text for his mother was a priest or friar who was angry about the corruption in the Church; he joined the worlds of devotion and religious dissent together].
Source: Medieval Women: Texts and Contexts in Late Medieval Britain. Essays for Felicity Riddy.   Edited by Jocelyn Wogan-Browne, Rosalynn Voaden, Arlyn Diamond, Ann Hutchison, Carol M. Meale, and Lesley Johnson Medieval Women: Texts and Contexts .   Brepols, 2000. Viator , 31., ( 2000):  Pages 169 - 184.
Year of Publication: 2000.

35. Record Number: 4465
Author(s): Beattie, Cordelia.
Contributor(s):
Title : A Room of One's Own? The Legal Evidence for the Residential Arrangements of Women Without Husbands in Late Fourteenth- and Early Fifteenth-Century York
Source: Medieval Women and the Law.   Edited by Noël James Menuge .   Boydell Press, 2000. Viator , 31., ( 2000):  Pages 41 - 56.
Year of Publication: 2000.

36. Record Number: 3777
Author(s): Livingstone, Amy
Contributor(s):
Title : Aristocratic Women in the Chartrain
Source: Aristocratic Women in Medieval France.   Edited by Theodore Evergates .   University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999. JEGP: Journal of English and Germanic Philology , 98., 1 (January 1999):  Pages 44 - 73.
Year of Publication: 1999.

37. Record Number: 4279
Author(s): Callahan, Leslie Abend.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Widow's Tears: The Pedagogy of Grief in Medieval France and the Image of the Grieving Widow
Source: Constructions of Widowhood and Virginity in the Middle Ages.   Edited by Cindy L. Carlson and Angela Jane Weisl .   St. Martin's Press, 1999. JEGP: Journal of English and Germanic Philology , 98., 1 (January 1999):  Pages 245 - 263.
Year of Publication: 1999.

38. Record Number: 4758
Author(s): Cavallo, Sandra and Lyndan Warner
Contributor(s):
Title : Part One Defining Widowhood: Introduction [brief overview of relevant topics including stereotypes, remarriage, inheritance, children, the Church, and loneliness and poverty].
Source: Widowhood in Medieval and Early Modern Europe.   Edited by Sandra Cavallo and Lyndan Warner .   Women and Men in History. Longman, 1999. Schede medievali , 38., ( 2000):  Pages 3 - 23.
Year of Publication: 1999.

39. Record Number: 4268
Author(s): Carlson, Cindy L. and Angela Jane Weisl
Contributor(s):
Title : Introduction: Constructions of Widowhood and Virginity [The authors explore the themes in the essays and argue that both widowhood and virginity carry multiple meanings in the Middle Ages].
Source: Constructions of Widowhood and Virginity in the Middle Ages.   Edited by Cindy L. Carlson and Angela Jane Weisl .   St. Martin's Press, 1999. Schede medievali , 38., ( 2000):  Pages 1 - 21.
Year of Publication: 1999.

40. Record Number: 4271
Author(s): Otter, Monika.
Contributor(s):
Title : Closed Doors: An Epithalamium for Queen Edith, Widow and Virgin
Source: Constructions of Widowhood and Virginity in the Middle Ages.   Edited by Cindy L. Carlson and Angela Jane Weisl .   St. Martin's Press, 1999. Schede medievali , 38., ( 2000):  Pages 63 - 92.
Year of Publication: 1999.

41. Record Number: 5363
Author(s): van Houts, Elisabeth.
Contributor(s):
Title : Countess Gunnor of Normandy (c. 950-1031)
Source: Collegium Medievale , 12., ( 1999):  Pages 7 - 24.
Year of Publication: 1999.

42. Record Number: 4269
Author(s): Roberts, Ann.
Contributor(s):
Title : Helpful Widows, Virgins in Distress: Women's Friendship in French Romance of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries
Source: Constructions of Widowhood and Virginity in the Middle Ages.   Edited by Cindy L. Carlson and Angela Jane Weisl .   St. Martin's Press, 1999. Collegium Medievale , 12., ( 1999):  Pages 25 - 47.
Year of Publication: 1999.

43. Record Number: 4270
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : The Widow as Virgin: Desexualized Narrative in Christine de Pizan's "Livre de la cité des dames"
Source: Constructions of Widowhood and Virginity in the Middle Ages.   Edited by Cindy L. Carlson and Angela Jane Weisl .   St. Martin's Press, 1999. Collegium Medievale , 12., ( 1999):  Pages 49 - 62.
Year of Publication: 1999.

44. Record Number: 7351
Author(s): La Rocca, Cristina.
Contributor(s):
Title : Pouvoirs des femmes, pouvoir de la loi dans l'Italie Lombarde [The author argues that one can speak of women's rights in this period, but only those that aristocratic families negotiated with the king in order to preserve patrimonies. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Femmes et pouvoirs des femmes à Byzance et en Occident (VIe -XIe siècles). Colloque international organisé les 28, 29 et 30 mars 1996 à Bruxelles et Villeneuve d'Ascq.   Edited by Stéphane Lebecq, Alain Dierkens, Régine Le Jan, and Jean-Marie Sansterre .   Centre de Recherche sur l'Histoire de l'Europe du Nord-Ouest, Université Charles de Gaulle-Lille 3, 1999. Collegium Medievale , 12., ( 1999):  Pages 37 - 50.
Year of Publication: 1999.

45. Record Number: 7363
Author(s): Kaplan, Michel.
Contributor(s):
Title : L'Aristocrate byzantine et sa Fortune [The author explores a number of cases where wealthy noble women administered their estates themselves and disposed of their properties and other goods. The women profiled include Danielis, a weathy and powerful noble woman associated with Emperor Basil I, Eudocie Bourion, who sold some of her dowry lands while her husband was still alive, Empress Irene Doukaina, Kale Basiliake, a wealthy young woman who became a nun upon her husband's death. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Femmes et pouvoirs des femmes à Byzance et en Occident (VIe -XIe siècles). Colloque international organisé les 28, 29 et 30 mars 1996 à Bruxelles et Villeneuve d'Ascq.   Edited by Stéphane Lebecq, Alain Dierkens, Régine Le Jan, and Jean-Marie Sansterre .   Centre de Recherche sur l'Histoire de l'Europe du Nord-Ouest, Université Charles de Gaulle-Lille 3, 1999. Collegium Medievale , 12., ( 1999):  Pages 205 - 226.
Year of Publication: 1999.

46. Record Number: 7354
Author(s): Santinelli, Emmanuelle.
Contributor(s):
Title : La Veuve du prince au tournant de l'an mil: l'exemple de Berthe de Bourgogne [Berthe, the widow of the count of Blois, preserved her children's inheritance, the author argues, in a shrewd move by marrying the King of France. Though censured by the Church, Berthe was in all other ways an exemplary widow: preserving the "memoria" of her first husband, giving generously to monasteries, and ruling until her son came of age. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Femmes et pouvoirs des femmes à Byzance et en Occident (VIe -XIe siècles). Colloque international organisé les 28, 29 et 30 mars 1996 à Bruxelles et Villeneuve d'Ascq.   Edited by Stéphane Lebecq, Alain Dierkens, Régine Le Jan, and Jean-Marie Sansterre .   Centre de Recherche sur l'Histoire de l'Europe du Nord-Ouest, Université Charles de Gaulle-Lille 3, 1999. Collegium Medievale , 12., ( 1999):  Pages 75 - 89.
Year of Publication: 1999.

47. Record Number: 7360
Author(s): Sansterre, Jean-Marie.
Contributor(s):
Title : Mère du roi, épouse du Christ, et fille de Saint Pierre: les dernières années de l'impératrice Agnès de Poitou. Entre image et réalité [The author argues that Agnes, wife and regent for Holy Roman emperors, gave up the power and pomp of the world for holy widowhood. However, she was still active in supporting the reform popes against the anti-popes established by her son. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Femmes et pouvoirs des femmes à Byzance et en Occident (VIe -XIe siècles). Colloque international organisé les 28, 29 et 30 mars 1996 à Bruxelles et Villeneuve d'Ascq.   Edited by Stéphane Lebecq, Alain Dierkens, Régine Le Jan, and Jean-Marie Sansterre .   Centre de Recherche sur l'Histoire de l'Europe du Nord-Ouest, Université Charles de Gaulle-Lille 3, 1999. Collegium Medievale , 12., ( 1999):  Pages 163 - 174.
Year of Publication: 1999.

48. Record Number: 4278
Author(s): Hayward, Rebecca.
Contributor(s):
Title : Between the Living and the Dead: Widows as Heroines of Medieval Romances
Source: Constructions of Widowhood and Virginity in the Middle Ages.   Edited by Cindy L. Carlson and Angela Jane Weisl .   St. Martin's Press, 1999. Collegium Medievale , 12., ( 1999):  Pages 221 - 243.
Year of Publication: 1999.

49. Record Number: 3700
Author(s): Crick, Julia.
Contributor(s):
Title : Women, Posthumous Benefaction, and Family Strategy in Pre-Conquest England [The author analyzes wills in which women play a prominent part, particularly in the granting and receiving of property; the author argues that women cared for family property and passed it on to the church as the original donors wished].
Source: Journal of British Studies (Full Text via JSTOR) 38, 4 (October 1999): 399-422 Link Info
Year of Publication: 1999.

50. Record Number: 4759
Author(s): Crick, Julia.
Contributor(s):
Title : Men, Women, and Widows: Widowhood in Pre-Conquest England [the author argues that the Christian idea of monogamous marriage did not change habits of concubinage in Anglo-Saxon England; therefore, "widow" was a term used by the Church only for certain specific cases, not for all the women that we would consider widows].
Source: Widowhood in Medieval and Early Modern Europe.   Edited by Sandra Cavallo and Lyndan Warner .   Women and Men in History. Longman, 1999.  Pages 24 - 36.
Year of Publication: 1999.

51. Record Number: 4761
Author(s): Chabot, Isabelle.
Contributor(s):
Title : Lineage Strategies and the Control of Widows in Renaissance Florence [The author argues that to ensure the male monopoly over wealth and power, men manipulated maternity (ranging from relationships with children to inheritance) for the interests of their patrilineage].
Source: Widowhood in Medieval and Early Modern Europe.   Edited by Sandra Cavallo and Lyndan Warner .   Women and Men in History. Longman, 1999.  Pages 127 - 144.
Year of Publication: 1999.

52. Record Number: 3993
Author(s): Hough, Carole.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Widow's "Mund" in AEthelberht 75 and 76 [The author argues that the text refers to the protection that widows were able to extend to their household and dependants.]
Source: JEGP: Journal of English and Germanic Philology , 98., 1 (January 1999):  Pages 1 - 16.
Year of Publication: 1999.

53. Record Number: 4382
Author(s): Mulder-Bakker, Anneke B.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Prime of Their Lives: Women and Age, Wisdom, and Religious Careers in Northern Europe [The author argues that older women took on leadership roles in religion, with prophecy, visions, teaching, and life as anchoresses].
Source: New Trends in Feminine Spirituality: The Holy Women of Liège and Their Impact.   Edited by Juliette Dor, Lesley Johnson, and Jocelyn Wogan-Browne Medieval Women: Texts and Contexts, 2.   Brepols, 1999. JEGP: Journal of English and Germanic Philology , 98., 1 (January 1999):  Pages 215 - 236.
Year of Publication: 1999.

54. Record Number: 4760
Author(s): Skinner, Patricia.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Widow's Options in Medieval Southern Italy [The author analyzes data from charters and finds 215 documented widows up to 1100].
Source: Widowhood in Medieval and Early Modern Europe.   Edited by Sandra Cavallo and Lyndan Warner .   Women and Men in History. Longman, 1999. JEGP: Journal of English and Germanic Philology , 98., 1 (January 1999):  Pages 57 - 65.
Year of Publication: 1999.

55. Record Number: 4619
Author(s): Klapisch-Zuber, Christiane.
Contributor(s):
Title : The "Cruel Mother": Maternity, Widowhood, and Dowry in Florence in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries [The author examines the plight of widows who were frequently forced to remarry by their natal families and leave their children behind with the first husbands' kin].
Source: Debating the Middle Ages: Issues and Readings.   Edited by Lester K. Little and Barbara H. Rosenwein .   Blackwell Publishers, 1998. Neuphilologische Mitteilungen , 99., 3 ( 1998):  Pages 264 - 276. Originally published in Women, Family, and Ritual in Renaissance Italy. University of Chicago Press, 1985. Pages 117-131. Also reprinted in Feminism and Renaissance Studies. Edited by Lorna Hutson. Oxford Reading in Feminism series. Oxford University Pres
Year of Publication: 1998.

56. Record Number: 5821
Author(s): Guzzetti, Linda.
Contributor(s):
Title : Le Donne a Venezia nel XIV secolo: Uno studia sulla loro presenza nella società e nella famiglia [Wills offer us insights into women's lives in 14th-century Venice; these wills are the more revealing because both civil penalties and religious sanctions protected a woman's testamentary freedom; women were the most frequent testators in Venice, helping establish wills as the usual means of disposing of property; and women could witness wills, though the testimony of two women was required to be equal to that of one man; this article traces social patterns by gender, marital status, and class of bequests documented in these Venetial wills; women disposed of dowries and moveable property, thus playing a larger private than public role].
Source: Studi Veneziani , 35., ( 1998):  Pages 15 - 88.
Year of Publication: 1998.

57. Record Number: 9549
Author(s): Allegrezza, Franca.
Contributor(s):
Title : Legami di affinita nel baronato romano: il caso degli Orsini (xiii-xiv secc.) [Beginning in the early13th century, marriages united Rome's new nobility. The Orsini are a notable example of this homogenous group of nobles. Eventually branches of the Orsini clan began to intermarry. Beginning in the reign of the Orsini pope Nicholas III (1277-1280), the family began to diversify its marriage strategy by intermarrying with noble families from central and Southern Italy. Still, it tried to keep inheritance from dispersing the family's patrimony to daughters, bastards, and sons in the clergy. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Le ricchezze delle donne: Diritti patrimoniali e poteri familiari in Italia (xiii-xix secc.).   Edited by Giulia Calvi and Isabelle Chabot .   Rosenberg & Sellier, 1998. Studi Veneziani , 35., ( 1998):  Pages 21 - 41.
Year of Publication: 1998.

58. Record Number: 15503
Author(s): Precopi Lombardo, Annamaria
Contributor(s):
Title : La Condizione femminile nelle comunità ebraiche di Sicilia [The late medieval Jewish community in Sicily maintained commercial, religious, and linguistic contacts throughout the Mediterranean region. Daughters of Sicilian Jewish families were treated like guests in their houses until they married. A young bride was expected to bring her husband a dowry and bear children. Royal law recognized Jewish legal norms and rites of marriage, except where Sicilian law differed from Jewish law. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: Archivio Storico Siciliano , 24., 1 ( 1998):  Pages 94 - 119.
Year of Publication: 1998.

59. Record Number: 4825
Author(s): Swabey, ffiona.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Letter Book of Alice de Bryene and Alice de Sutton's List of Debts [the author analyzes eight letters written to Alice de Bryene, commenting on the familial and administrative duties Alice undertook; her grandmother, Alice de Sutton, serves as an example of irresponsible management because she hadn't paid her husband's legacies thirty years after his death; the appendices reproduce the texts of the eight letters in French and the list of debts in Latin].
Source: Nottingham Medieval Studies , 42., ( 1998):  Pages 121 - 145.
Year of Publication: 1998.

60. Record Number: 3782
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : The "Povre Widwe" in the "Nun's Priest's Tale" and Boccaccio's "Decameron" [the poor widow's spare, modest, and healthy way of life is contrasted with the corrupt clergy].
Source: Neuphilologische Mitteilungen , 99., 3 ( 1998):  Pages 269 - 273.
Year of Publication: 1998.

61. Record Number: 2081
Author(s): Walmsley, John.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Early Abbesses, Nuns, and Female Tenants of the Abbey of Holy Trinity, Caen [using charters and early surveys, the author examines the administration of the abbesses, the social origins of the nuns, and the status of female tenants both in Normandy and England, particularly the inheritance rights of widows].
Source: Journal of Ecclesiastical History , 48., 3 (July 1997):  Pages 425 - 444.
Year of Publication: 1997.

62. Record Number: 2224
Author(s): Stasser, Thierry.
Contributor(s):
Title : Adélaïde d'Anjou, sa famille, ses unions, sa descendance
Source: Moyen Age , 103., 1 ( 1997):  Pages 9 - 52.
Year of Publication: 1997.

63. Record Number: 2736
Author(s): Rivers, Theodore John.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Legal Status of Widows in Late Anglo-Saxon England [argues that widows at this time had exceptional opportunities under the protection of the king and lords; the author argues that the power of kin over widows was diminished based in part on the examples of widows' inheritance of bookland].
Source: Medievalia Et Humanistica New Series , 24., ( 1997):  Pages 1 - 16.
Year of Publication: 1997.

64. Record Number: 4998
Author(s): Jenal, Georg.
Contributor(s):
Title : Il monachesimo femminile in Italia tra Tardo Anticho e Medioevo [Early Italian monasticism, modeled on Egyptian practices, had a predominant number of female ascetics. Many lived with their families, and communities only took shape gradually. Virgins ranked first; then widows; then married women vowed to continence. The numbers of ascetic women, compared to the number of monks, had declined by the time of Gregory the Great].
Source: Il monachesimo femminile in Italia dall' Alto Medioevo al secolo XVII a confronto con l' oggi.   Edited by Gabriella Zarri .   San Pietro in Cariano: Il Segno dei Gabrielli editori, 1997. Medievalia Et Humanistica New Series , 24., ( 1997):  Pages 17 - 39.
Year of Publication: 1997.

65. Record Number: 2735
Author(s): Payne, Paddy and Caroline Barron
Contributor(s):
Title : The Letters and Life of Elizabeth Despenser, Lady Zouche (d. 1408) [her letters and will provide a glimpse of her personal concerns regarding family, household and servants, business affairs, and religion; appendices include an English translation of her will, a calendar of documents by or about Lady Elizabeth, and texts of her letters, 1402-1403].
Source: Nottingham Medieval Studies , 4., ( 1997):  Pages 126 - 156.
Year of Publication: 1997.

66. Record Number: 2207
Author(s): Thomas, Hugh M.
Contributor(s):
Title : An Upwardly Mobile Medieval Woman: Juliana of Warwick [Juliana managed Countess Matilda's household (as "cameraria") and received gifts of land from her employer/patroness; Matilda also probably arranged Juliana's advantageous marriage with the wealthy knight, Nigel of Plumpton].
Source: Medieval Prosopography , 18., ( 1997):  Pages 109 - 121.
Year of Publication: 1997.

67. Record Number: 2335
Author(s): Skinner, Patricia.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Light of My Eyes: Medieval Motherhood in the Mediterranean
Source: Women's History Review , 6., 3 ( 1997):  Pages 391 - 410.
Year of Publication: 1997.

68. Record Number: 2274
Author(s): Skinner, Patricia.
Contributor(s):
Title : Gender and Poverty in the Medieval Community
Source: Medieval Women in Their Communities.   Edited by Diane Watt .   University of Toronto Press, 1997. Women's History Review , 6., 3 ( 1997):  Pages 204 - 221.
Year of Publication: 1997.

69. Record Number: 620
Author(s): Parker, Deborah.
Contributor(s):
Title : Women in the Book Trade in Italy, 1475- 1620
Source: Renaissance Quarterly (Full Text via JSTOR) 49, 3 (Autumn 1996): 509-511. Link Info
Year of Publication: 1996.

70. Record Number: 7448
Author(s): Chabot, Isabelle.
Contributor(s):
Title : Risorse e diritti patrimoniali [The Black Death (1348) frequently put wealth into the hands of women by killing off male heirs. Subsequent efforts to limit a daughter's property to her dowry was counterbalanced by inheritance through wills. Roman law gave women an equal claim on an inheritance, but Italian statutes severely limited that right. The cities also were slow to let women inherit where any male heirs existed. Birth families often struggled with husbands over control of the daughter's dowry and had to claim restitution if the husband predeceased the wife. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Il Lavoro delle donne.   Edited by Angela Groppi .   Storia delle donne in Italia. Editori Laterza, 1996.  Pages 47 - 70.
Year of Publication: 1996.

71. Record Number: 1099
Author(s): Gates, Lori A.
Contributor(s):
Title : Widows, Property, and Remarriage: Lessons from Glastonbury's Deverill Manors [contrasts found in the manorial communities of Longbridge and Monkton, with the latter being less hospitable to widowed property holders; the author argues against a direct connection between land availability and widow remarriage, favoring instead a multiplicity of socio-economic conditions including labor pool, social hierarchy, manorial industries, age at widowhood, and children in the household.]
Source: Albion , 28., 1 (Spring 1996):  Pages 19 - 35.
Year of Publication: 1996.

72. Record Number: 682
Author(s): Meek, Christine E.
Contributor(s):
Title : Women, Dowries, and the Family in Late Medieval Italian Cities [emphasis is on upper class families with a brief consideration of artisans and peasants].
Source: The Fragility of Her Sex?: Medieval Irishwomen in Their European Context.   Edited by Christine Meek and Katherine Simms .   Four Courts Press, 1996. Albion , 28., 1 (Spring 1996):  Pages 136 - 152.
Year of Publication: 1996.

73. Record Number: 905
Author(s): Cullum, P. H.
Contributor(s):
Title : Vowesses and Female Lay Piety in the Province of York, 1300-1530
Source: Northern History , 32., ( 1996):  Pages 21 - 41.
Year of Publication: 1996.

74. Record Number: 3681
Author(s): Underhill, Frances A.
Contributor(s):
Title : Elizabeth de Burgh: Connoisseur and Patron [The author surveys Elizabeth de Burgh's extensive patronage of literary, academic, and artistic endeavors; she devoted her greatest efforts to Clare College, an unusual choice of patronage for the time.]
Source: The Cultural Patronage of Medieval Women.   Edited by June Hall McCash .   University of Georgia Press, 1996. Northern History , 32., ( 1996):  Pages 266 - 287.
Year of Publication: 1996.

75. Record Number: 5136
Author(s): Labarge, Margaret Wade
Contributor(s):
Title : Aspects of Social Life in the Middle Ages [The author reflects in part on the career of Michael M. Sheehan and comments on his collection of papers, "Marriage, Family, and Law in Medieval Europe" as well as the Festschrift collection done in his memory, "Wife and Widow in Medieval Europe"].
Source: Florilegium , 14., ( 1995- 1996):  Pages 197 - 204.
Year of Publication: 1995- 1996.

76. Record Number: 3
Author(s): Brundage, James A.
Contributor(s):
Title : Merry Widow's Serious Sister: Remarriage in Classical Canon Law
Source: Matrons and Marginal Women in Medieval Society.   Edited by Robert R. Edwards and Vickie Ziegler .   Boydell Press, 1995. Mitteilungen des Instituts für österreichische Geschichtsforschung , 103., 40241 ( 1995):  Pages 33 - 48.
Year of Publication: 1995.

77. Record Number: 163
Author(s): Dinn, Robert.
Contributor(s):
Title : Monuments Answerable to Men's Worth: Burial Patterns, Social Status, and Gender in Late Medieval Bury St. Edmunds
Source: Journal of Ecclesiastical History , 46., 2 (Apr. 1995):  Pages 237 - 255.
Year of Publication: 1995.

78. Record Number: 243
Author(s): Réal, Isabelle.
Contributor(s):
Title : Vie et "Vita" de sainte Ségolène, abbesse du Troclar au VIIe siècle
Source: Moyen Age , 101., 40241 ( 1995):  Pages 384 - 406.
Year of Publication: 1995.

79. Record Number: 1004
Author(s): To Figueras, Lluís.
Contributor(s):
Title : Les Femmes dans la société catalane des lXe-XIe siècles
Source: La Femme dans l' histoire et la société méridionales (IXe-XIXe S.): Actes du 66e congrés. .   Fédération historique du Languedoc méditerranéen et du Roussillon, 1995. Moyen Age , 101., 40241 ( 1995):  Pages 51 - 65.
Year of Publication: 1995.

80. Record Number: 1571
Author(s): Wertheimer, Laura.
Contributor(s):
Title : Adeliza of Louvain and Anglo- Norman Queenship
Source: The Haskins Society Journal , 7., ( 1995):  Pages 101 - 115.
Year of Publication: 1995.

81. Record Number: 1572
Author(s): Johns, Susan.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Wives and Widows of the Earls of Chester, 1100-1252: The Charter Evidence [focuses on their power to make land transactions, particularly in support of the Church].
Source: The Haskins Society Journal , 7., ( 1995):  Pages 117 - 132.
Year of Publication: 1995.

82. Record Number: 1844
Author(s): Nelson, Janet L.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Wary Widow [case study of the will of Erkanfrida, widow of a minor noble man and a "deo sacrata," a woman consecrated to God in her widowhood; the author includes an English translation of the will and an appendix gives the Latin text of the will from Wampach's "Urkunden- und Quellenbuch zur Geschichte der altluxemburgischen Territorien," Reprinted in Courts, Elites, and Gendered Power in the Early Middle Ages: Charlemagne and Others. By Janet L. Nelson. Ashgate Variorum, 2007. Article 2. Pages 87-90].
Source: Property and Power in the Early Middle Ages.   Edited by Wendy Davies and Paul Fouracre .   Cambridge University Press, 1995. The Haskins Society Journal , 7., ( 1995):  Pages 82 - 113. Reprinted in Courts, Elites, and Gendered Power in the Early Middle Ages: Charlemagne and Others. By Janet L. Nelson. Ashgate Variorum, 2007. Article 2.
Year of Publication: 1995.

83. Record Number: 6011
Author(s): Meek, Christine.
Contributor(s):
Title : La donna, la famiglia, e la legge nell'epoca di Ilaria del Carretto [the limits imposed on Italian women were imposed in Lucca as they were elsewhere; law and practice, however, could differ, often to the women's advantage; women can be found bringing suits claiming that they had been coerced by their families into marriages to which they had not consented; wives of insolvent husbands can be found petitioning for restitution of their dowries; widows can be found serving as guardians of their minor children without the advice or consent of their late husbands' kin].
Source: Ilaria del Carretto e il suo monumento: la donna nell'arte, la cultura, e la società del '400. Atti del convegno Internazionale di Studi, 15-16-17 Settembre, 1994, Palazzo Ducale, Lucca.   Edited by Stéphane Toussaint. Translated by Clotilde Soave Bowe. .   Edizioni S. Marco Litotipo, 1995. The Haskins Society Journal , 7., ( 1995):  Pages 137 - 163.
Year of Publication: 1995.

84. Record Number: 6781
Author(s): Steuer, Susan M. B.
Contributor(s):
Title : Family Strategies in Medieval London: Financial Planning and the Urban Widow, 1123-1473 [the author uses the published edition of the cartulary of St. Bartholomew's Hospital to trace the help given to widows not just aid to needy widows but also taking over property management and making retirement arrangements for well-to-do widows who lacked family support].
Source: Essays in Medieval Studies , 12., ( 1995):  Pages 1 - 4. and 1-2 (notes) [in the electronic version available through Project Muse]. Issue title: Children and the Family in the Middle Ages.
Year of Publication: 1995.

85. Record Number: 1529
Author(s): Peláez, Manuel J., Jean Louis Hague and Josep Maria Peral
Contributor(s):
Title : La Femme veuve dans l'oeuvre de l'Évêque d'Elne, Francesc Eieximenis, 1330-1409
Source: La Femme dans l' histoire et la société méridionales (IXe-XIXe S.): Actes du 66e congrés. .   Fédération historique du Languedoc méditerranéen et du Roussillon, 1995. Florilegium , 14., ( 1995- 1996):  Pages 117 - 128.
Year of Publication: 1995.

86. Record Number: 432
Author(s): Duby, Georges.
Contributor(s):
Title : Women and Power [the ways in which aristocratic women in northern France took part in the power of command and of punishment].
Source: Cultures of Power: Lordship, Status, and Process in Twelfth-Century Europe.   Edited by Thomas N. Bisson .   University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995. Florilegium , 14., ( 1995- 1996):  Pages 69 - 85.
Year of Publication: 1995.

87. Record Number: 438
Author(s): Howell, Martha.
Contributor(s):
Title : Rewriting Marriage in Late Medieval Douai [from emphasis on the conjugal pair to the interests of the next generation].
Source: Romanic Review , 86., 2 (March 1995):  Pages 307 - 337. Special issue: The Production of Knowledge: Institutionalizing Sex, Gender, and Sexualiity in Medieval Discourse. Ed. by Kathryn Gravdal.
Year of Publication: 1995.

88. Record Number: 22
Author(s): Erler, Mary C.
Contributor(s):
Title : English Vowed Women at the End of the Middle Ages
Source: Mediaeval Studies , 57., ( 1995):  Pages 155 - 203.
Year of Publication: 1995.

89. Record Number: 23
Author(s): Erler, Mary C.
Contributor(s):
Title : Appendix Late Medieval Vowed Women: A Provisional List
Source: Mediaeval Studies , 57., ( 1995):  Pages 183 - 203.
Year of Publication: 1995.

90. Record Number: 4684
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Women as Patrons: Nuns, Widows, and Rulers
Source: Siena, Florence, and Padua: Art, Society, and Religion, 1280-1400. Volume II: Case Studies.   Edited by Diana Norman .   Yale University Press in association with The Open University, 1995. Mediaeval Studies , 57., ( 1995):  Pages 242 - 266.
Year of Publication: 1995.

91. Record Number: 791
Author(s): Bremmer, Rolf Hendrik,
Contributor(s):
Title : Widows in Anglo-Saxon England
Source: Between Poverty and the Pyre: Moments in the History of Widowhood.   Edited by Jan Bremmer and Lourens van den Bosch .   Routledge, 1995. Mediaeval Studies , 57., ( 1995):  Pages 58 - 88.
Year of Publication: 1995.

92. Record Number: 8588
Author(s): Martin, Janet.
Contributor(s):
Title : Widows, Welfare, and the "Pomest'e" System in the Sixteenth Century [The author argues that through the "pomest'e" system the state not only supported soldiers but also their survivors (widows, mothers, or dependent children) for their lifetimes. It went far beyond the state's desire to raise minor sons to become soldiers. The data from the 1550s indicates that the estates were usually more than adequate to support the women's households. However, by the 1580s, 40 percent of the "pomest'ia" could not support the surveyed women's households. The author ascribes the problems to serious economic deterioration rather than to the "pomest'e" system. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Harvard Ukrainian Studies , 19., ( 1995):  Pages 375 - 388. Kamen' Kraeog "I'n": Rhetoric of the Medieval Slavic World: Essays Presented to Edward L. Keenan on His Sixtieth Birthday by His Colleagues and Students. Edited by Nancy Shields Kollmann, Donald Ostrowski, Andrei Pliguzov, and Daniel Rowland.
Year of Publication: 1995.

93. Record Number: 1711
Author(s): Altmann, Barbara K.
Contributor(s):
Title : L'art de l'autoportrait littéraire dans les "Cent Ballades" de Christine de Pizan [discussion of Christine's contradictory self-portrayal as a widow who knows much about courtly love].
Source: Une femme de Lettres au Moyen Age: Études autour de Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Liliane Dulac and Bernard Ribémont .   Paradigme, 1995. Harvard Ukrainian Studies , 19., ( 1995):  Pages 327 - 336.
Year of Publication: 1995.

94. Record Number: 439
Author(s): Brownlee, Kevin.
Contributor(s):
Title : Widowhood, Sexuality, and Gender in Christine de Pizan
Source: Romanic Review , 86., 2 (March 1995):  Pages 339 - 353. Special issue: The Production of Knowledge: Institutionalizing Sex, Gender, and Sexualiity in Medieval Discourse. Ed. by Kathryn Gravdal.
Year of Publication: 1995.

95. Record Number: 232
Author(s): Wiesner-Hanks, Merry.
Contributor(s):
Title : Learned Task and Given to Men Alone: The Gendering of Tasks in Early Modern German Cities [division between production and reproduction].
Source: Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies , 25., 1 (Winter 1995):  Pages 89 - 106.
Year of Publication: 1995.

96. Record Number: 34
Author(s): McKee, Sally.
Contributor(s):
Title : Households in Fourteenth-Century Venetian Crete
Source: Speculum (Full Text via JSTOR) 70 (1995): 27-67. Link Info
Year of Publication: 1995.

97. Record Number: 2767
Author(s): Pohl-Resl, Brigitte.
Contributor(s):
Title : Vorsorge, Memoria und soziales Ereignis: Frauen als Schenkerinnen in den bayerischen und alemannischen Urkunden des 8. und 9. Jahrhunderts
Source: Mitteilungen des Instituts für österreichische Geschichtsforschung , 103., 40241 ( 1995):  Pages 265 - 287.
Year of Publication: 1995.

98. Record Number: 1384
Author(s): DeAragon, RaGena C.
Contributor(s):
Title : Dowager Countesses, 1069-1230 [prosopographical study of fifty-eight dowager countesses including numbers of marriages, lengths of marriages, numbers of children, retirement to monasteries, and treatment by the king].
Source: Anglo-Norman Studies , 17., ( 1994):  Pages 87 - 100.
Year of Publication: 1994.

99. Record Number: 5301
Author(s): Chabot, Isabelle.
Contributor(s):
Title : La Sposa in Nero. La Ritualizzazione del Lutto delle Vedove Fiorentine (Secoli XIV-XV) [the Italian dowry system gave the husband temporary control of additional property, but his death deprived his paternal kin group of that property ; Florentine marriage ceremonies emphasized an exchange of gifts, but these rituals did not always include permanent transfer of the objects given; a new widow was dressed in mourning by her husband's family to display family solidarity, but any effort to leave the home or remarry was resisted, partly because property would pass out of the family's control; a marriageable widow might be returned to her birth family in a procession mirroring the earlier one to her husband's house on her wedding day; a long-term trend, however, saw the husband's family gain a greater share of the goods the wife had brought to the marriage].
Source: Quaderni Storici , 2 (agosto 1994):  Pages 421 - 462.
Year of Publication: 1994.

100. Record Number: 5365
Author(s): Hanawalt, Barbara
Contributor(s):
Title : La Debolezza del lignaggio. Vedove, Orfani e Corporazioni nella Londra Tardo Medievale [in cities like London, status depended at least as much on wealth as on birth; in this context a widow's dower could transfer substantial capital from the family of her first to that of the second husband; outside London that effect was moderated by giving the late husband's family guardianship of his minor children, but this was not true in England's metropolis, giving the widow more economic power; widows, however, sometimes had to sue to obtain their dower; this ability to remarry, taking the dower with her, undermined patrilinear descent of wealth; but most widows married within the same guild, keeping resources concentrated in the same economic group].
Source: Quaderni Storici , 2 (agosto 1994):  Pages 463 - 481.
Year of Publication: 1994.

101. Record Number: 1381
Author(s): Hough, Carole A.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Early Kentish "Divorce Laws": A Reconsideration of Aethelberht, Chs. 79 and 80 [argues that the text traditionally taken as evidence of divorce is in fact about a widow who either remains celibate, keeping her inheritance and children, or remarries and loses her inheritance and, possibly, her children as well].
Source: Anglo-Saxon England , 23., ( 1994):  Pages 19 - 34.
Year of Publication: 1994.

102. Record Number: 11169
Author(s): Garcia Herrero, Maria del Carmen.
Contributor(s):
Title : Viudedad foral y viudas aragonesas a finales de la edad media [The author examines notarial documents concerning widows' rights to their husbands' estates. The documents date from the fifteenth century and come from Zaragoza, Huesca, Teruel, Calatayud, and Daroca in Aragon. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: Hispania: Revista Española de Historia , 2 (mayo-agosto 1993):  Pages 431 - 450.
Year of Publication: 1993.

103. Record Number: 8581
Author(s): Miskimin, Harry A.
Contributor(s):
Title : Widows Not So Merry: Women and the Courts in Late Medieval France [The essay considers the practice of widows standing before the law courts to establish their economic and inheritance rights. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Upon My Husband's Death: Widows in the Literature and Histories of Medieval Europe.   Edited by Louise Mirrer Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Civilization .   University of Michigan Press, 1992. Manuscripta , 36., 3 (November 1992):  Pages 207 - 219.
Year of Publication: 1992.

104. Record Number: 8586
Author(s): Piera, Montserrat and Donna M. Rogers
Contributor(s):
Title : The Widow as Heroine: The Fifteenth-Century Catalan Chivalresque Novel "Curial e Güelfa" [The authors observe that "Curial e Güelfa" departs from traditional Catalan ideas about widowhood in its representation of a woman who uses her fortune to transform a man of humble birth into a suitable candidate for her second marriage. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Upon My Husband's Death: Widows in the Literature and Histories of Medieval Europe.   Edited by Louise Mirrer Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Civilization .   University of Michigan Press, 1992. Hispania: Revista Española de Historia , 2 (mayo-agosto 1993):  Pages 321 - 342.
Year of Publication: 1992.

105. Record Number: 8576
Author(s): Tallan, Cheryl.
Contributor(s):
Title : Opportunities for Medieval Northern European Jewish Widows in the Public and Domestic Spheres [The author suggests that some Jewish widows became prominent in the public domain, but only insofar as they took over the duties of their late husbands. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Upon My Husband's Death: Widows in the Literature and Histories of Medieval Europe.   Edited by Louise Mirrer Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Civilization .   University of Michigan Press, 1992. Manuscripta , 36., 3 (November 1992):  Pages 115 - 127.
Year of Publication: 1992.

106. Record Number: 8735
Author(s): Kleimola, Ann M.
Contributor(s):
Title : In Accordance with the Canons of the Holy Apostles: Muscovite Dowries and Women’s Property Rights [The author argues that women’s property rights and management responsibilities through both dowries and inheritance increased during the sixteenth century but were significantly restricted in the following century. The chief concern became to allot all l
Source: Russian Review (Full Text via JSTOR) 51, 2 (April 1992): 204-229. Link Info
Year of Publication: 1992.

107. Record Number: 8579
Author(s): Mitchell, Linda E.
Contributor(s):
Title : Noble Widowhood in the Thirteenth Century: Three Generations of Mortimer Widows, 1246-1334 [The author looks at three generations of noble widows in Wales, considering the important roles they held in the public sphere. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Upon My Husband's Death: Widows in the Literature and Histories of Medieval Europe.   Edited by Louise Mirrer Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Civilization .   University of Michigan Press, 1992. Hispania: Revista Española de Historia , 2 (mayo-agosto 1993):  Pages 169 - 190.
Year of Publication: 1992.

108. Record Number: 9528
Author(s): Mitchell, Linda E.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Lady is a Lord: Noble Widows and Land in Thirteenth-Century Britain [Independent noble widows were common in medieval England; many chose to remain single after the death of a husband, thereby holding large amounts of land and maintaining control over their families and their tenants. These women actively participated in the public sphere, and social class carried greater importance than gender in defining their roles. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Historical Reflections/ Reflexions historiques , 18., 1 (Winter 1992):  Pages 71 - 97.
Year of Publication: 1992.

109. Record Number: 10225
Author(s): King, Catherine.
Contributor(s):
Title : Medieval and Renaissance Matrons, Italian-style [Women were able to commission art and architecture in fourteenth and fifteenth century Italy in a variety of ways, even if their involvement in the production of images and construction of buildings wasn’t as widespread as men’s. For instance, wealthy widows could control the making of large, public images such as funerary altarpieces, while nuns could commission artwork and buildings through convent endowments. Through their acts of patronage, these “matrons” challenged conventional expectations that women inhabit a small, private sphere. The author also analyzes how women chose to represent themselves visually within the works they commissioned. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte , 55., ( 1992):  Pages 372 - 393.
Year of Publication: 1992.

110. Record Number: 9184
Author(s): Vierow, Heidi.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Will of Raimonda: Testament of a Woman in the Twelfth Century [The author describes a woman's will now in the library of Duke University. Raimonda, a widow who lived in Catalonia, drew up a will because she was going on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. The author includes a transcription of the Latin text of the will at the end of her article. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Manuscripta , 36., 3 (November 1992):  Pages 214 - 224.
Year of Publication: 1992.

111. Record Number: 9183
Author(s): Harley, Marta Powell.
Contributor(s):
Title : Of Widewhod: A Middle English Tract in Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Bodley 938 [The author traces the Biblical and patristic sources for this tract on widowhood and defines it as essentially a translation of the final chapter of the "De vita christiana" with an introduction added of admonitions, scriptural references, and commentary. The author also supplies an edition of the Middle English text of the tract. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Manuscripta , 36., 3 (November 1992):  Pages 178 - 190.
Year of Publication: 1992.

112. Record Number: 10780
Author(s): Wood, Chauncey.
Contributor(s):
Title : Three Chaucerian Widows: Tales of Innocence and Experience [The author contrasts the Wife of Bath with the Prioress and the Second Nun, finding her lacking in mercy and preoccupied with worldly concerns. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: A Wyf Ther Was: Essays in Honour of Paule Mertens-Fonck.   Edited by Juliette Dor .   English Department, University of Liège, 1992. Manuscripta , 36., 3 (November 1992):  Pages 282 - 290.
Year of Publication: 1992.

113. Record Number: 8577
Author(s): Rosenthal, Joel T.
Contributor(s):
Title : Other Victims: Peeresses as War Widows, 1450-1500 [The author examines the lives of English war widows, who often suffered for their dead husbands' military and political disgraces. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Upon My Husband's Death: Widows in the Literature and Histories of Medieval Europe.   Edited by Louise Mirrer Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Civilization .   University of Michigan Press, 1992. Manuscripta , 36., 3 (November 1992):  Pages 131 - 152. Originally published in History: The Journal of the Historical Association 72, 235 (1987): 213-230.
Year of Publication: 1992.

114. Record Number: 8583
Author(s): Vasvari, Louise O.
Contributor(s):
Title : Why is Doña Endrina a widow? Traditional culture and textuality in the "Libro de Buen Amor" [The author considers the implications of literary representations of widows as sexually excessive on the one hand, and sexually pleasing on the other. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Upon My Husband's Death: Widows in the Literature and Histories of Medieval Europe.   Edited by Louise Mirrer Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Civilization .   University of Michigan Press, 1992. Manuscripta , 36., 3 (November 1992):  Pages 259 - 287.
Year of Publication: 1992.

115. Record Number: 8582
Author(s): Dulac, Liliane.
Contributor(s):
Title : Mystical Inspiration and Political Knowledge: Advice to Widows from Francesco da Barberino and Christine de Pizan [The author considers two literary works in which advice is given to widows. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Upon My Husband's Death: Widows in the Literature and Histories of Medieval Europe.   Edited by Louise Mirrer Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Civilization .   University of Michigan Press, 1992. Manuscripta , 36., 3 (November 1992):  Pages 223 - 258.
Year of Publication: 1992.

116. Record Number: 8584
Author(s): Gericke, Philip O.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Widow in Hispanic Balladry: "Fonte Frida" [The author asks whether a traditional Spanish ballad which celebrates a marital bond that transcends the death of a spouse reflects actual widowhood in medieval Iberia. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Upon My Husband's Death: Widows in the Literature and Histories of Medieval Europe.   Edited by Louise Mirrer Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Civilization .   University of Michigan Press, 1992. Manuscripta , 36., 3 (November 1992):  Pages 289 - 303.
Year of Publication: 1992.

117. Record Number: 8585
Author(s): Arden, Heather M.
Contributor(s):
Title : Grief, Widowhood, and Women's Sexuality in Medieval French Literature [The author observes that widows in medieval French literature are often represented as the most lecherous of women, and argues that the texts in effect cautioned men to keep their wives under close watch. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Upon My Husband's Death: Widows in the Literature and Histories of Medieval Europe.   Edited by Louise Mirrer Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Civilization .   University of Michigan Press, 1992. Manuscripta , 36., 3 (November 1992):  Pages 305 - 319.
Year of Publication: 1992.

118. Record Number: 8580
Author(s): Brundage, James A.
Contributor(s):
Title : Widows as Disadvantaged Persons in Medieval Canon Law [The author discusses the objectives and implications of Church intervention in legal cases concerning widows. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Upon My Husband's Death: Widows in the Literature and Histories of Medieval Europe.   Edited by Louise Mirrer Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Civilization .   University of Michigan Press, 1992. Manuscripta , 36., 3 (November 1992):  Pages 193 - 206.
Year of Publication: 1992.

119. Record Number: 8578
Author(s): Estow, Clara.
Contributor(s):
Title : Widows in the Chronicles of Late Medieval Castile [The author studies royal widows in late medieval Castilian chronicles, some of whom were able to enjoy the full extent of royal power and to create public personae independent from those of their husbands. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Upon My Husband's Death: Widows in the Literature and Histories of Medieval Europe.   Edited by Louise Mirrer Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Civilization .   University of Michigan Press, 1992. Manuscripta , 36., 3 (November 1992):  Pages 153 - 167.
Year of Publication: 1992.

120. Record Number: 8573
Author(s): Hanawalt, Barbara A.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Widow's Mite: Provisions for Medieval London Widows [The author uses London plea roles and wills to examine the extent to which widows were able to recover their dowers, and suggests that widows actively participated in medieval law courts. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Upon My Husband's Death: Widows in the Literature and Histories of Medieval Europe.   Edited by Louise Mirrer Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Civilization .   University of Michigan Press, 1992. Manuscripta , 36., 3 (November 1992):  Pages 21 - 45.
Year of Publication: 1992.

121. Record Number: 8575
Author(s): Bennett, Judith M.
Contributor(s):
Title : Widows in the Medieval English Countryside [The author, while arguing that widows took an active part in the legal issues of households in rural medieval England, also explores the problematics of their legal status. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Upon My Husband's Death: Widows in the Literature and Histories of Medieval Europe.   Edited by Louise Mirrer Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Civilization .   University of Michigan Press, 1992. Manuscripta , 36., 3 (November 1992):  Pages 69 - 114.
Year of Publication: 1992.

122. Record Number: 8574
Author(s): Crabb, Ann Morton.
Contributor(s):
Title : How Typical Was Alessandra Macinghi Strozzi of Fifteenth-Century Florentine Widows? [The author studies a Florentine widow who became an agent and representative of her family (a role normally unavailable to patrician women, but one that carried many hardships) after her husband's death in exile. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Upon My Husband's Death: Widows in the Literature and Histories of Medieval Europe.   Edited by Louise Mirrer Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Civilization .   University of Michigan Press, 1992. Manuscripta , 36., 3 (November 1992):  Pages 47 - 68.
Year of Publication: 1992.

123. Record Number: 11214
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Why Found a Medieval Cistercian Nunnery? [Isabel de Aubigny, Countess of Arundel, was a noble-born English woman who established a Cistercian monastery in the thirteenth century. Isabel’s husband and many close relatives died when she was young, and she chose to remain a widow. After a series of additional family deaths, Isabel used the dowry she had been given by her father upon her marriage in order to establish a Cistercian nunnery. She had many motivations for founding the monastery: religious convictions (doing charity to benefit her soul in the afterlife), economic and political goals (disposing of estates), and social aspirations and responsibilities (maintaining family honor and increasing her social prestige). Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Medieval Prosopography , 12., 1 (Spring 1991):  Pages 1 - 28.
Year of Publication: 1991.

124. Record Number: 11228
Author(s): Tallan, Cheryl.
Contributor(s):
Title : Medieval Jewish Widows: Their Control of Resources
Source: Jewish History , 5., 1 (Spring 1991):  Pages 63 - 74.
Year of Publication: 1991.

125. Record Number: 8645
Author(s): Papi, Anna Benvenuti.
Contributor(s):
Title : Una santa vedova [Left a young widow with children, Umiliata declined remarriage. She passed the remainder of her life in her father’s house treated like a servant and distracted from prayer by male relatives. After her death, Umiliata’s cult was promoted by the Franciscans. Her children later favored the Franciscan convent of Santa Croce. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: In castro poenitentiae: santità e società femminile nell’Italia medievali. Anna Benvenuti Papi .   Herder, 1990. Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies , 20., 2 (Fall 1990):  Pages 59 - 98. Earlier published in Studies in Church History 27 (1990): 53-78.
Year of Publication: 1990.

126. Record Number: 8647
Author(s): Papi, Anna Benvenuti.
Contributor(s):
Title : I frati e le donne [Many of the holy women of late-medieval Italy were affiliated with the mendicant orders. These women included widows and penitents, as well as nuns. These ties inspired hagiographic works written by the friars, presenting these women in an acceptable man
Source: In castro poenitentiae: santità e società femminile nell’Italia medievali. Anna Benvenuti Papi .   Herder, 1990. Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies , 20., 2 (Fall 1990):  Pages 119 - 140. Originally published as "Frati mendicanti e pinzochere in Toscana: dalla marginalità sociale a modello di santità," in Temi i problemi della mistica femminile trecentesca: XX convegno del Centro di studi sulla spiritualità medievale, Todi 14-17 ottobre 19
Year of Publication: 1990.

127. Record Number: 8652
Author(s): Papi, Anna Benvenuti.
Contributor(s):
Title : Donne religiose nella Firenze del Due-Trecento [The calling of Florentine recluses was grounded in the hermit tradition, but their lives came to be regulated according to monastic norms. The hermit ideal was rural, but these women were urban. Communities of recluses could come into conflict with local ecclesiastical authorities, but they often had important lay patrons. Marginal women, including widows and ex-prostitutes, often found homes in communities of penitents. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: In castro poenitentiae: santità e società femminile nell’Italia medievali. Anna Benvenuti Papi .   Herder, 1990. Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies , 20., 2 (Fall 1990):  Pages 593 - 634. Originally printed as "Donne religiose nella Firenze del Due-Trecento: Appunti per una ricerca in corso," in Le mouvement confraternel au Moyen Âge: France, Suisse, Italie: Actes de la table ronde, Lausanne 9-11 mai 1985 (Droz, 1987). Pages 41-82.
Year of Publication: 1990.

128. Record Number: 8653
Author(s): Papi, Anna Benvenuti.
Contributor(s):
Title : In domo bighittarum seu viduarum: Pubblica assistenza e marginalità nella Firenze medievale [Assistance by ecclesiastical institutions to the poor and unfortunate was grounded in the tradition of monastic hospitality. The demand for relief grew as urban life revived in the later Middle Ages. Among those most in need were marginalized women, including poor widows and ex-prostitutes. By the 13th century, Florence and other Italian communes were involved in regulating services to the poor. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: In castro poenitentiae: santità e società femminile nell’Italia medievali. Anna Benvenuti Papi .   Herder, 1990. Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies , 20., 2 (Fall 1990):  Pages 635 - 665. Originally published in Città e servizi sociali nell’Italia dei secoli XII-XV: Atti del dodicesimo convegno internazionale del Centro italiano di studi di storia e d’arte di Pistoia, 2-12 ottobre 1987 (Presso la sede del Centro, 1990). Pages 325-353.
Year of Publication: 1990.

129. Record Number: 12732
Author(s): Cohen, Esther and Elliott. Horowitz
Contributor(s):
Title : In search of the sacred: Jews, Christians, and rituals of marriage in the later Middle Ages [For many centuries, Jews lived among Christians in most of Europe, and despite religious differences there was much interaction between the two communities in the realm of public social rituals. Even though the two faiths had different philosophies on the purpose of marriage and ethical status of marital sex, Jewish and Christian weddings ran parallel in the gradual sacralization of what was originally a secular ritual and the development of distinct rituals for the remarriage of widows. The upper classes in Jewish and Christian communities approached the marriage ritual as a way to draw sharp distinctions between the two faiths, including the location and timing of the event and what visual elements or objects were used. However, the lower classes often shared more similarities in their ritual behaviors due to a larger degree of contact within a shared culture and common experience. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies , 20., 2 (Fall 1990):  Pages 225 - 249.
Year of Publication: 1990.

130. Record Number: 28006
Author(s):
Contributor(s): Treharne, R. E., selector
Title : The Petition of the Barons, May 1258, Sections 1-6 [Reforms the magnates put forward included free entry for heirs (including daughters) with no profits taken by the bailiffs. Further they asked that the king not “disparage” women when arranging their marriages by giving them to foreign-born husbands. Later in the petition in Section 27 (pp. 88-89), the barons stipulated that a woman’s dowry upon her death without children should revert to her father or brother. In addition they wanted widows to no longer be allowed to give, sell, or enfeoff their dowries. They argued that the dowries were conditional gifts and should revert to the man who gave it or to his heirs. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: Documents of the Baronial Movement of Reform and Rebellion 1258-1267.   Edited by I. J. Sanders Oxford Medieval Texts .   Clarendon Press, 1973. Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies , 20., 2 (Fall 1990):  Pages 76 - 81.
Year of Publication: 1973.

131. Record Number: 24522
Author(s): Cavell, Emma.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Burial of Noblewomen in Thirteenth-Century Shropshire [The author examines evidence of the burial locations of Shropshire noble women during the long thirteenth century (1150 to 1350 C.E.). Cavell finds a connection between a woman’s possession of land as an heiress and her freedom to determine her own place of burial and the associated gifts to the monastery involved. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: Thirteenth Century England , 11., ( 1973):  Pages 174 - 191.
Year of Publication:

132. Record Number: 28737
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Widow of Alvise Contarini
Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/55/Jacometto_Veneziano_003.jpg/250px-Jacometto_Veneziano_003.jpg
Year of Publication:

133. Record Number: 28769
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Allegorical Harvesting Scene
Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/55/Mittelrheinischer_Meister_des_13._Jahrhunderts_001.jpg/250px-Mittelrheinischer_Meister_des_13._Jahrhunderts_001.jpg
Year of Publication:

134. Record Number: 28955
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Buonomini Taking Inventory
Source:
Year of Publication:

135. Record Number:
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Vision of the Soul of Guy de Thurno
Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b4/Vision_d%27ame_1475.jpg/250px-Vision_d%27ame_1475.jpg
Year of Publication:

136. Record Number: 31272
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Reliquary from the Shrine of St. Oda
Source:
Year of Publication:

137. Record Number: 32300
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : The Wife of Bath, from the Ellesmere Chaucer
Source:
Year of Publication: