Feminae: Medieval Women and Gender Index


101 Record(s) Found in our database

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1. Record Number: 39927
Author(s): , Unknown
Contributor(s): McAvoy, Liz Herbert, ed. and trans.
Title : A Revelation of Purgatory
Source: A Revelation of Purgatory.   Edited by Liz Herbert McAvoy. Library of Medieval Women series .   D. S. Brewer, 2017.  Pages 72 - 155.
Year of Publication: 2017.

2. Record Number: 24048
Author(s): Berman, Constance Hoffman
Contributor(s):
Title : Noble Women's Power as Reflected in the Foundations of Cistercian Houses for Nuns in Thirteenth-Century Northern France: Port-Royal, les Clairets, Moncey, Lieu and Eau-lez-Chartres [The author examines five Cistercian female houses supported by Matilda of Brunswick, the Countess of the Perche; Matilda of Garlande, Lady of Marly; and Isabelle, Countess of Chartres with the help of her daughter, Matilda of Amboise. Berman argues that these actions reveal the power and authority women exercised and need to be incorporated into the historical narrative. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: Negotiating Community and Difference in Medieval Europe: Gender, Power, Patronage, and the Authority of Religion in Latin Christendom.   Edited by Katherine Allen Smith and Scott Wells Studies in the History of Christian Traditions .   Brill, 2009.  Pages 137 - 149.
Year of Publication: 2009.

3. Record Number: 19950
Author(s): Jordan, Erin L.
Contributor(s):
Title : The "Abduction" of Ida of Boulogne: Assessing Women's Agency in Thirteenth-Century France
Source: French Historical Studies , 30., 1 (Winter 2007):  Pages 1 - 20.
Year of Publication: 2007.

4. Record Number: 20731
Author(s): Shadis, Miriam
Contributor(s):
Title : Women, Gender, and Rulership in Romance Europe: The Iberian Case
Source: History Compass , 4., 3 ( 2006):  Pages 481 - 487.
Year of Publication: 2006.

5. Record Number: 13674
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Gendering Viragos: Medieval Perceptions of Powerful Women [The author explores the medieval concept of the virago, a lordly woman who exercised authoritative powers. Case studies include Adelaide, duchess of Turin; Gunhild, sister of Swein, the Danish king of England; Bertrada of Montfort, wife of King Louis VI; and Adela, countess of Blois. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Studies on Medieval and Early Modern Women 4: Victims or Viragos?   Edited by Christine Meek and Catherine Lawless .   Four Courts Press, 2005. History Compass , 4., 3 ( 2006):  Pages 17 - 38.
Year of Publication: 2005.

6. Record Number: 20782
Author(s): Trout, Dennis
Contributor(s):
Title : Theodelinda's Rome: "Ampullae," "Pittacia," and the Image of the City [Describes the political significance of Theodelinda's patronage of a collection of oils from the Roman "martyria," its repercussions on her relationship with Pope Gregory the Great, and that of Lombardy with the papacy in Rome. Also investigates how the burial locations of saints defined the layout of medieval cities. Title note supplied by Feminae].
Source: Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome , 50., ( 2005):  Pages 131 - 145.
Year of Publication: 2005.

7. Record Number: 10725
Author(s): Lehfeldt, Elizabeth A.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Gender Shared Sovereignty: Texts and the Royal Marriage of Isabella and Ferdinand [The author analyzes the first year of Isabella's and Ferdinand's joint reign through the texts of four chroniclers: Fernando del Pulgar, Alfonso de Palencia, Diego de Valera, and Juan de Flores. Lehfeldt finds that Valera consistently defends Isabella's right to rule, while Palencia is harshly critical much of the time. Flores and Pulgar seemingly tried to avoid committing themselves to either monarch. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Women, Texts, and Authority in the Early Modern Spanish World.   Edited by Marta V. Vicente and Luis R. Corteguera .   Ashgate, 2003. Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome , 50., ( 2005):  Pages 37 - 55.
Year of Publication: 2003.

8. Record Number: 10451
Author(s): Ingham, Patricia Clare.
Contributor(s):
Title : From Kinship to Kingship: Mourning, Gender, and Anglo-Saxon Community [The author examines the characters Wealthow and Hildeburh in "Beowulf" and, to a lesser degree, the poems, "The Wife's Lament" and "Wulf and Eadwacer." Ingham argues that the women do important cultural work as the ones responsible for hopeless loss. In the larger historical moment they uphold the ties of kinship as society comes to accept the personal loyalty owed to a centralizing sovereign. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Grief and Gender: 700-1700.   Edited by Jennifer C. Vaught with Lynne Dickson Bruckner .   Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome , 50., ( 2005):  Pages 17 - 31.
Year of Publication: 2003.

9. Record Number: 8709
Author(s): Webb, Diana.
Contributor(s):
Title : Freedom of Movement? Women Travellers in the Middle Ages [The author provides a brief overview of women who travelled during the late Middle Ages. On occasion demands of business, politics, or war required women to travel. However, the most frequent reason for travel was pilgrimage, sometimes to local or religious shrines, but also to distant locations like Rome and Jerusalem. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Studies on Medieval and Early Modern Women: Pawns or Players?   Edited by Christine Meek and Catherine Lawless .   Four Courts Press, 2003. Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome , 50., ( 2005):  Pages 75 - 89.
Year of Publication: 2003.

10. Record Number: 11656
Author(s): Mills, Robert.
Contributor(s):
Title : Can the Virgin Martyr Speak? [The author draws out parallels between the virgin martyr and the Hindu widow who commits sati. At issue are the tensions between victimization and empowerment within the context of patriarchy, social class, and gender. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Medieval Virginities.   Edited by Anke Bernau, Ruth Evans, and Sarah Salih .   Religion and Culture in the Middle Ages series. University of Wales Press; University of Toronto Press, 2003. Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome , 50., ( 2005):  Pages 187 - 213.
Year of Publication: 2003.

11. Record Number: 9721
Author(s): Craig, Leigh Ann
Contributor(s):
Title : Stronger Than Men and Braver Than Knights: Women and the Pilgrimages to Jerusalem and Rome in the Later Middle Ages
Source: Journal of Medieval History , 29., 3 (September 2003):  Pages 153 - 175.
Year of Publication: 2003.

12. Record Number: 8071
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Public Exposure? Consorts and Ritual in Late Medieval Europe: The Example of the Entrance of the Dogaresse of Venice [The author argues that the ceremonial processions of the wives of the new doges both contained and empowered these women. The ceremonies had something in common with coronation rites and with wedding ceremonies. The peculiar conditions governing the doge's political power meant that dynastic succession (and his consort's fertility) were not issues of concern. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Gendering the Master Narrative: Women and Power in the Middle Ages.   Edited by Mary C. Erler and Maryanne Kowaleski .   Cornell University Press, 2003. Journal of Medieval History , 29., 3 (September 2003):  Pages 174 - 189.
Year of Publication: 2003.

13. Record Number: 8070
Author(s): French, Kathrine L.
Contributor(s):
Title : Women in the Late Medieval English Parish [The author argues that parish guilds in England were important because they gave women the opportunity to join single-sex organizations that were approved by the community. Women took leadership roles and created activities and rituals that were meaningful for their lives. While generally reinforcing accepted gender behaviors, customs like Hocktide (in which women held men captive for ransom-contributions to the parish) made authorities uneasy. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Gendering the Master Narrative: Women and Power in the Middle Ages.   Edited by Mary C. Erler and Maryanne Kowaleski .   Cornell University Press, 2003. Journal of Medieval History , 29., 3 (September 2003):  Pages 156 - 173.
Year of Publication: 2003.

14. Record Number: 8708
Author(s): Kenny, Gillian.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Power of Dower: The Importance of Dower in the Lives of Medieval Women in Ireland [The author argues that the financial resources made available to widows from their dowers transformed their lives. They took over many of their husbands' roles including bringing suits in court and donating to local religious institutions. Both the widows and their heirs sometimes had difficulties accustoming themselves to the changes in power. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Studies on Medieval and Early Modern Women: Pawns or Players?   Edited by Christine Meek and Catherine Lawless .   Four Courts Press, 2003. Journal of Medieval History , 29., 3 (September 2003):  Pages 59 - 74.
Year of Publication: 2003.

15. Record Number: 7410
Author(s): Guzzetti, Linda and Antje Ziemann
Contributor(s):
Title : Women in the Fourteenth-Century Venetian "Scuole"
Source: Renaissance Quarterly , 55., 4 (Winter 2002):  Pages 1151 - 1195.
Year of Publication: 2002.

16. Record Number: 8806
Author(s): Parsons, John Carmi.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Medieval Aristocratic Teenaged Female: Adolescent or Adult? [The author argues that there was a more "fluid scale of ages" for women than for men, particularly involving royalty and the nobility. Young women could act decisively and authoritatively when helping their husbands or protecting their children. Parsons points to the case of Isabelle of Hainaut who at fourteen performed a dramatic public prayer to win public support and prevent her husband's planned divorce. Elizabeth Plantagenet, Countess of Holland, at fiften years enlisted the help of the Hague's burgers to rescue her young husband who had been kidnapped by the regent. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: The Premodern Teenager: Youth in Society, 1150-1650.   Edited by Konrad Eisenbichler .   Publications of the Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies, Essays and Studies, 1. Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies, 2002. NWSA Journal , 14., 2 (Summer 2002):  Pages 311 - 321.
Year of Publication: 2002.

17. Record Number: 8283
Author(s): Bratsch-Prince, Dawn
Contributor(s):
Title : Pawn or Player? Violant of Bar and the Game of Matrimonial Politics in the Crown of Aragon (1380-1396) [The author argues that Violant of Bar actively participated in arranging politically advantageous marriages for her children as well as for members of her court. The Appendix presents the Catalan texts along with English translations of ten of her letters concerning some of her marriage arrangements. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Marriage and Sexuality in Medieval and Early Modern Iberia. Hispanic Issues, Volume 26.   Edited by Eukene Lacarra Lanz .   Routledge, 2002. Renaissance Quarterly , 55., 4 (Winter 2002):  Pages 59 - 89.
Year of Publication: 2002.

18. Record Number: 7442
Author(s): Dockray-Miller, Mary.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Maternal Performance of the Virgin Mary in the Old English "Advent"
Source: NWSA Journal , 14., 2 (Summer 2002):  Pages 38 - 55.
Year of Publication: 2002.

19. Record Number: 6676
Author(s): Seaman, Myra.
Contributor(s):
Title : Engendering Genre in Middle English Romance: Performing the Feminine in "Sir Beves of Hamtoun" [the author argues that Josian, the heroine, does not behave according to French romance expectations; she uses the assumptions of other characters concerning standard feminine weaknesses in order to take action and save herself; the narrator rewards Josian for her bold actions and, in a role reversal, devotes portions of the poem to her adventures when she and the hero are separated].
Source: Studies in Philology , 98., 1 (Winter 2001):  Pages 49 - 75.
Year of Publication: 2001.

20. Record Number: 5774
Author(s): Bryce, Judith.
Contributor(s):
Title : Performing for Strangers: Women, Dance, and Music in Quattrocento Florence
Source: Renaissance Quarterly (Full Text via JSTOR) 54, 4.1 (Winter 2001): 1074-1107. Link Info
Year of Publication: 2001.

21. Record Number: 6742
Author(s): Schein, Sylvia.
Contributor(s):
Title : Women in Medieval Colonial Society: The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem in the Twelfth Century [The author argues that noble and royal women in the Crusader Kingdom had a better legal status and more freedom of action than women in Europe because the conditions of constant war often overruled traditional gender roles. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Gendering the Crusades.   Edited by Susan B. Edgington and Sarah Lambert .   University of Wales Press, 2001.  Pages 140 - 153.
Year of Publication: 2001.

22. Record Number: 6240
Author(s): Jenkens, A. Lawrence.
Contributor(s):
Title : Caterina Piccolomini and the Palazzo delle Papesse in Siena [the author surveys the works that ten secular women commissioned from the painter Neri di Bicci between 1453 and 1475; the author analyzes the group of women in terms of marital status and social class and compares them with the men who requested art works in Neri's records; women ordered significantly more works for display in churches rather than in homes and their works were more costly with gilt and expensive colors].
Source: Beyond Isabella: Secular Women Patrons of Art in Renaissance Italy.   Edited by Sheryl E. Reiss and David G. Wilkins .   Sixteenth Century Essays and Studies, Volume 54. Truman State University Press, 2001.  Pages 77 - 91.
Year of Publication: 2001.

23. Record Number: 19504
Author(s): Freeman, Elizabeth
Contributor(s):
Title : Medieval Women, Letter Writing and Performance [The author uses Heloise's letters as a case study of medieval women's epistolary affirmations of identity. Using the conventions of the "ars dictaminis," medieval women writers defined their identities. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: Lilith , 10., ( 2001):  Pages 58 - 74.
Year of Publication: 2001.

24. Record Number: 4495
Author(s): Hill, Barbara
Contributor(s):
Title : Actions Speak Louder Than Words: Anna Komnene's Attempted Usurpation
Source: Anna Komnene and Her Times.   Edited by Thalia Gouma-Peterson .   Garland Publishing, 2000. Magistra , 6., 1 (Summer 2000):  Pages 45 - 62.
Year of Publication: 2000.

25. Record Number: 4507
Author(s): Bowers, Terence N.
Contributor(s):
Title : Margery Kempe as Traveler [The author argues that Margery Kempe uses travel to establish a new status, to wield power, and to question the patriarchal ordering of society].
Source: Studies in Philology , 97., 1 (Winter 2000):  Pages 1 - 28.
Year of Publication: 2000.

26. Record Number: 4836
Author(s): Freeman, Elizabeth.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Medieval Nuns at Watton: Reading Female Agency from Male-Authored Didatic Texts [The author argues that not only did Aelred imbue the nuns at Watton with the Cistercian values of friendship, charity, and chastity, but he also did not object to their acts of revenge against the canon and his pregnant nun lover].
Source: Magistra , 6., 1 (Summer 2000):  Pages 3 - 36.
Year of Publication: 2000.

27. Record Number: 4470
Author(s): Hawkes, Emma.
Contributor(s):
Title : [S]he Will...Protect and Defend Her Rights Boldly by Law and Reason...: Women's Knowledge of Common Law and Equity Courts in Late-Medieval England [The author argues that though women did not participate in court cases in large numbers, some gentry women directed legal cases behind th scenes, showing a good grasp of the law].
Source: Medieval Women and the Law.   Edited by Noël James Menuge .   Boydell Press, 2000. Magistra , 6., 1 (Summer 2000):  Pages 145 - 161.
Year of Publication: 2000.

28. Record Number: 3552
Author(s): Scott, Karen.
Contributor(s):
Title : Mystical Death, Bodily Death: Catherine of Siena and Raymond of Capua on the Mystic's Encounter with God [the author argues that Catherine's writings should serve as the main source of information about her spirituality and her life of concern for the Church and the world; her confessor, Raymond of Capua wrote a biography of Catherine that was shaped by his own hagiographic agenda and sought to minimize her activism in the world].
Source: Gendered Voices: Medieval Saints and Their Interpreters.   Edited by Catherine M. Mooney .   University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999. Magistra , 6., 1 (Summer 2000):  Pages 136 - 167.
Year of Publication: 1999.

29. Record Number: 3767
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Noblewomen and Political Activity [The author provides an introductory overview touching on political roles, the influence that noblewomen wielded, their administrative duties, patronage, the religious life, and the commemoration of family members].
Source: Women in Medieval Western European Culture.   Edited by Linda E. Mitchell .   Garland Publishing, 1999. Magistra , 6., 1 (Summer 2000):  Pages 209 - 219.
Year of Publication: 1999.

30. Record Number: 4382
Author(s): Mulder-Bakker, Anneke B.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Prime of Their Lives: Women and Age, Wisdom, and Religious Careers in Northern Europe [The author argues that older women took on leadership roles in religion, with prophecy, visions, teaching, and life as anchoresses].
Source: New Trends in Feminine Spirituality: The Holy Women of Liège and Their Impact.   Edited by Juliette Dor, Lesley Johnson, and Jocelyn Wogan-Browne Medieval Women: Texts and Contexts, 2.   Brepols, 1999. Magistra , 6., 1 (Summer 2000):  Pages 215 - 236.
Year of Publication: 1999.

31. Record Number: 3808
Author(s): Kittell, Ellen E.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Construction of Women's Social Identity in Medieval Douai: Evidence from Identifying Epithets [many women acted for themselves in doing public business].
Source: Journal of Medieval History , 25., 3 (September 1999):  Pages 215 - 227.
Year of Publication: 1999.

32. Record Number: 5024
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : The Tricky Queen and Her Clever Lady-in-Waiting: Stealing the Crown to Secure Succession, Visegrad 1440 [Elizabeth of Luxemburg sent her loyal attendant, Helene Kottanner, to steal the Hungarian crown so that her soon-to-be-born baby (if it were a boy) could be made king rather than the interloper king of Poland].
Source: East Central Europe , 1 ( 1998):  Pages 87 - 100. Women and Power in East Central Europe - Medieval and Modern. Edited by Marianne Sághy.
Year of Publication: 1998.

33. Record Number: 3430
Author(s): Kittell, Ellen E.
Contributor(s):
Title : Women, Audience, and Public Acts in Medieval Flanders
Source: Journal of Women's History , 10., 3 (Autumn 1998):  Pages 74 - 96.
Year of Publication: 1998.

34. Record Number: 20980
Author(s): Ross, Valerie A
Contributor(s):
Title : Transgressive Alliances: Marie de France and the Representation of Female Desire in "Eliduc"
Source: Mediaevalia , 21., 2 ( 1997):  Pages 209 - 230.
Year of Publication: 1997.

35. Record Number: 2461
Author(s): Ross, Valerie A.
Contributor(s):
Title : Believing Cassandra: Intertextual Politics and the Interpretation of Dreams in "Troilus and Criseyde" [argues for a reading of Chaucer as resisting a legacy of notions about gender, authority, and agency; Chaucer makes an alliance with his female characters against misogyny].
Source: Chaucer Review , 31., 4 ( 1997):  Pages 339 - 356.
Year of Publication: 1997.

36. Record Number: 2273
Author(s): Zimmermann, Margarete
Contributor(s):
Title : English Noblewomen and the Local Community in the Later Middle Ages [roles that noble women played at the local level as employers, almsgivers, supporters of the parish, providers of hospitality and entertainment, and members of confraternities].
Source: Medieval Women in Their Communities.   Edited by Diane Watt .   University of Toronto Press, 1997. Chaucer Review , 31., 4 ( 1997):  Pages 186 - 203.
Year of Publication: 1997.

37. Record Number: 2979
Author(s): Gold, Barbara K.
Contributor(s):
Title : Hrotswitha Writes Herself: "Clamor Validus Gandeshemensis"
Source: Sex and Gender in Medieval and Renaissance Texts: The Latin Tradition.   Edited by Barbara K. Gold, Paul Allen Miller, and Charles Platter .   State University of New York Press, 1997. Chaucer Review , 31., 4 ( 1997):  Pages 41 - 70.
Year of Publication: 1997.

38. Record Number: 2206
Author(s): Livingstone, Amy
Contributor(s):
Title : Noblewomen's Control of Property in Early Twelfth-Century Blois-Chartres
Source: Medieval Prosopography , 18., ( 1997):  Pages 55 - 71.
Year of Publication: 1997.

39. Record Number: 1997
Author(s): French, Katherine L.
Contributor(s):
Title : To Free Them From Binding: Women in the Late Medieval English Parish [analysis of the celebration of Hocktide during which women chased men, tied them up, and took their ransom money for a parish fund raiser].
Source: Journal of Interdisciplinary History (Full Text via JSTOR) 27, 3 (Winter 1997): 387-412. Link Info
Year of Publication: 1997.

40. Record Number: 2462
Author(s): McGregor, Francine.
Contributor(s):
Title : What of Dorigen? Agency and Ambivalence in the "Franklin's Tale"
Source: Chaucer Review , 31., 4 ( 1997):  Pages 365 - 378.
Year of Publication: 1997.

41. Record Number: 1404
Author(s): Olsen, Alexandra Hennessey.
Contributor(s):
Title : Gender Roles [overview of recent scholarship with an emphasis on the active roles that women play in "Beowulf"].
Source: A Beowulf Handbook.   Edited by Robert E. Bjork and John D. Niles .   University of Nebraska Press, 1997. Chaucer Review , 31., 4 ( 1997):  Pages 311 - 324.
Year of Publication: 1997.

42. Record Number: 2035
Author(s): Fee, Christopher.
Contributor(s):
Title : Judith and the Rhetoric of Heroism in Anglo-Saxon England [argues that the Anglo-Saxon "Judith" is restricted to a purely inspirational role in contrast to the Vulgate "Judith" who plans and executes a daring strategy; the author suggests that Anglo-Saxon culture equated active heroism only with masculine military might].
Source: English Studies , 78., 5 (September 1997):  Pages 401 - 406.
Year of Publication: 1997.

43. Record Number: 2207
Author(s): Thomas, Hugh M.
Contributor(s):
Title : An Upwardly Mobile Medieval Woman: Juliana of Warwick [Juliana managed Countess Matilda's household (as "cameraria") and received gifts of land from her employer/patroness; Matilda also probably arranged Juliana's advantageous marriage with the wealthy knight, Nigel of Plumpton].
Source: Medieval Prosopography , 18., ( 1997):  Pages 109 - 121.
Year of Publication: 1997.

44. Record Number: 1985
Author(s): Irmscher, J.
Contributor(s):
Title : Bertha von Sulzbach, Gemahlin Manuels I
Source: Byzantinische Forschungen , 22., ( 1996):  Pages 279 - 290. Issue Title: Byzance et l'Europe. 6e Symposion Byzantinon l'Automne 1992.
Year of Publication: 1996.

45. Record Number: 2702
Author(s): Ross, Valerie A.
Contributor(s):
Title : Resisting Chaucerian Misogyny: Reinscribing Criseyde [argues that Chaucer is a gender-conscious social visionary who seeks to subvert the "auctores" and the misogynist ideology in his transgressive alliance with Criseyde].
Source: Aestel , 4., ( 1996):  Pages 29 - 58.
Year of Publication: 1996.

46. Record Number: 813
Author(s): Clough, Cecil H.
Contributor(s):
Title : Daughters and Wives of the Montefeltro: Outstanding Bluestockings of the Quattrocento [discusses their learning, roles in public life, and Christian devotion].
Source: Renaissance studies : journal of the Society for Renaissance Studies , 10., 1 (March 1996):  Pages 31 - 55.
Year of Publication: 1996.

47. Record Number: 1562
Author(s): Hanawalt, Barbara A.
Contributor(s):
Title : Separation Anxieties in Late Medieval London: Gender in "The Wright's Chaste Wife" [includes a discussion of historical instances in which wives coped with their husbands' long absences].
Source: Medieval Perspectives , 11., ( 1996):  Pages 23 - 41. Also reprinted in "Of Good and Ill Repute": Gender and Social Control in Medieval England. Barbara A. Hanawalt. Oxford University Press, 1998. 88-103 Proceedings of the Twenty-First Annual Conference of the Southeastern Medieval Association
Year of Publication: 1996.

48. Record Number: 1608
Author(s): Kottenhoff, Margarete.
Contributor(s):
Title : Die Miniaturen des "Livre de la Cité des Dames" als historiche Quellen
Source: Historisches Jahrbuch , 115., 2 ( 1995):  Pages 335 - 361.
Year of Publication: 1995.

49. Record Number: 569
Author(s): Jost, Jean E.
Contributor(s):
Title : Hearing the Female Voice: Transgression in "Amis and Amiloun"
Source: Medieval Perspectives , 10., ( 1995):  Pages 116 - 132. Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Conference of the Southeastern Medieval Association
Year of Publication: 1995.

50. Record Number: 172
Author(s): Harline, Craig.
Contributor(s):
Title : Actives and Contemplatives: The Female Religious of the Low Countries Before and After Trent
Source: Catholic Historical Review , 81., 4 (Oct. 1995):  Pages 541 - 567.
Year of Publication: 1995.

51. Record Number: 94
Author(s): Stowasser, Barbara.
Contributor(s):
Title : Impassioned Mother or Passive Icon: The Virgin's Role in Late Medieval and Early Modern Passion Sermons
Source: Renaissance Quarterly (Full Text via JSTOR) 48, 2 (Summer 1995): 227-261. Link Info
Year of Publication: 1995.

52. Record Number: 1119
Author(s): Federico, Sylvia.
Contributor(s):
Title : Transgressive Teaching and Censorship in a Fifteenth- Century Vision of Purgatory [explores tensions within and without the female-authored text in which women are the spiritual teachers].
Source: Mystics Quarterly , 21., 2 (June 1995):  Pages 59 - 67.
Year of Publication: 1995.

53. Record Number: 420
Author(s): Van Dyke, Carolynn.
Contributor(s):
Title : Clerk's and Franklin's Subjected Subjects [individual agency of Dorigen and Griselda].
Source: Studies in the Age of Chaucer , 17., ( 1995):  Pages 45 - 68.
Year of Publication: 1995.

54. Record Number: 1484
Author(s): Neal, Sharon Bryant.
Contributor(s):
Title : Las Donas e las femnas, las tozas avinens: Women in "La Canso de la Crozada" [while Guilhem de Tudela primarily limits women's roles to that of victim, the continuator of La Canso shows women as leaders and even fighters in the war against the Northern French forces; as a member of Southern society it was natural for him to represent women with more detail and care; the appendix reproduces thirty-nine excerpts from the "Canso de la Crozada" that deal with women].
Source: Tenso , 10., 2 (Spring 1995):  Pages 110 - 138.
Year of Publication: 1995.

55. Record Number: 913
Author(s): Caille, Jacqueline.
Contributor(s):
Title : Ermengarde, Vicomtesse de Narbonne (1127/29-1196/97): Une grande figure feminine du Midi aristocratique [focuses on Ermengarde's youth and old age when, despite long years of skillful rulership, she was forced out of power by her nephew, Pierre de Lara].
Source: La Femme dans l' histoire et la société méridionales (IXe-XIXe S.): Actes du 66e congrés. .   Fédération historique du Languedoc méditerranéen et du Roussillon, 1995. Tenso , 10., 2 (Spring 1995):  Pages 9 - 50.
Year of Publication: 1995.

56. Record Number: 436
Author(s): Kinoshita, Sharon.
Contributor(s):
Title : Politics of Courtly Love: "La Prise d' Orange" and The Conversion of the Saracen Queen
Source: Romanic Review , 86., 2 (March 1995):  Pages 265 - 287. Special issue: The Production of Knowledge: Institutionalizing Sex, Gender, and Sexualiity in Medieval Discourse. Ed. by Kathryn Gravdal.
Year of Publication: 1995.

57. Record Number: 2767
Author(s): Pohl-Resl, Brigitte.
Contributor(s):
Title : Vorsorge, Memoria und soziales Ereignis: Frauen als Schenkerinnen in den bayerischen und alemannischen Urkunden des 8. und 9. Jahrhunderts
Source: Mitteilungen des Instituts für österreichische Geschichtsforschung , 103., 40241 ( 1995):  Pages 265 - 287.
Year of Publication: 1995.

58. Record Number: 16624
Author(s): Hughes, Diane Owen
Contributor(s):
Title : Mourning Rites, Memory, and Civilization in Premodern Italy [Diane Owen-Hughes argues that women's active role in mourning was a longstanding tradition of the Mediterranean and was frequently accomodated by Church officials. In late medieval Italy civic authorities acted to marginalize women's involvement by legislating their behavior, the kinds of mourning garb they could wear, and, in many cases, preventing even close female relatives from attending the funeral mass and burial. A male commemoration was given preference instead with men's funerary oratory and the new movement torward constructing elaborate tombs. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: Riti e rituali nelle società medievali.   Edited by Jacques Chiffoleau, Lauro Martines, and Agostino Paravicini Bagliani .   Centro Italiano di Studi sull'Alto Medioevo, 1994. Mediterranean Studies , 4., ( 1994):  Pages 23 - 38.
Year of Publication: 1994.

59. Record Number: 2012
Author(s): Earenfight, Theresa.
Contributor(s):
Title : Maria of Castile, Ruler or Figurehead? A Preliminary Study in Aragónese Queenship [analysis of Maria's rule as Lieutenant General during her husband's absences, 1421-1423 amd 1435-1453].
Source: Mediterranean Studies , 4., ( 1994):  Pages 45 - 61.
Year of Publication: 1994.

60. Record Number: 11206
Author(s): Giannarelli, Elena.
Contributor(s):
Title : Women and Miracles in Christian Biography, (IVth-Vth centuries) [While miracles are a common feature in saint’s lives, the only saints who actually work miracles are male. Female saints, rather than making miracles happen, have miraculous things happen to them. Christian biographers use miraculous signs and omens exterior to woman herself in order to demonstrate the saintly status of the woman. They do not relate miraculous actions performed by the woman herself. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Studia Patristica , 25., ( 1993):  Pages 376 - 380. Papers presented at the Eleventh International Conference on Patristic Studies held in Oxford 1991. Biblica et Apocrypha, Orientalia, Ascetica
Year of Publication: 1993.

61. Record Number: 11207
Author(s): Gillette, Gertrude, O. S. B.
Contributor(s):
Title : Radegund’s Monastery of Poitiers: the Rule and its Observance [When she founded her monastery, Radegund established a Rule which stated that a nun must not leave the monastery up to the time of her death. While the Rule was intended to limit the nuns’ contact with the outside world, the nuns actually had frequent interactions with outsiders. Daily life did not necessarily correspond to the Rule, and nuns could adapt their interpretation of the Rule to suit special circumstances or to serve their own personal motivations. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Studia Patristica , 25., ( 1993):  Pages 381 - 387. Papers presented at the Eleventh International Conference on Patristic Studies held in Oxford 1991. Biblica et Apocrypha, Orientalia, Ascetica
Year of Publication: 1993.

62. Record Number: 8581
Author(s): Miskimin, Harry A.
Contributor(s):
Title : Widows Not So Merry: Women and the Courts in Late Medieval France [The essay considers the practice of widows standing before the law courts to establish their economic and inheritance rights. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Upon My Husband's Death: Widows in the Literature and Histories of Medieval Europe.   Edited by Louise Mirrer Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Civilization .   University of Michigan Press, 1992. English Studies , 73., 1 ( 1992):  Pages 207 - 219.
Year of Publication: 1992.

63. Record Number: 8576
Author(s): Tallan, Cheryl.
Contributor(s):
Title : Opportunities for Medieval Northern European Jewish Widows in the Public and Domestic Spheres [The author suggests that some Jewish widows became prominent in the public domain, but only insofar as they took over the duties of their late husbands. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Upon My Husband's Death: Widows in the Literature and Histories of Medieval Europe.   Edited by Louise Mirrer Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Civilization .   University of Michigan Press, 1992. English Studies , 73., 1 ( 1992):  Pages 115 - 127.
Year of Publication: 1992.

64. Record Number: 8687
Author(s): Graham, Helena.
Contributor(s):
Title : A Woman's Work ...: Labour and Gender in the Late Medieval Countryside [Closely studying court rolls, the author investigates what kinds of labor women performed and were associated with in medieval Staffordshire. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Woman is a Worthy Wight: Women in English Society c. 1200-1500.   Edited by P.J.P. Goldberg .   Alan Sutton Publishing, 1992. English Studies , 73., 1 ( 1992):  Pages 126 - 148.
Year of Publication: 1992.

65. Record Number: 8579
Author(s): Mitchell, Linda E.
Contributor(s):
Title : Noble Widowhood in the Thirteenth Century: Three Generations of Mortimer Widows, 1246-1334 [The author looks at three generations of noble widows in Wales, considering the important roles they held in the public sphere. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Upon My Husband's Death: Widows in the Literature and Histories of Medieval Europe.   Edited by Louise Mirrer Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Civilization .   University of Michigan Press, 1992. Studia Patristica , 25., ( 1993):  Pages 169 - 190.
Year of Publication: 1992.

66. Record Number: 9528
Author(s): Mitchell, Linda E.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Lady is a Lord: Noble Widows and Land in Thirteenth-Century Britain [Independent noble widows were common in medieval England; many chose to remain single after the death of a husband, thereby holding large amounts of land and maintaining control over their families and their tenants. These women actively participated in the public sphere, and social class carried greater importance than gender in defining their roles. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Historical Reflections/ Reflexions historiques , 18., 1 (Winter 1992):  Pages 71 - 97.
Year of Publication: 1992.

67. Record Number: 10014
Author(s): Rothschild, Judith Rice.
Contributor(s):
Title : Empowered women and manipulative behaviors in Chrétien's "Le Chevalier au Lion" and "Le Chevalier de la Charrete" [The author investigates the figure of the "controlling" or "manipulative" woman in the romances of Chretien. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Medieval Perspectives , 7., ( 1992):  Pages 171 - 185.
Year of Publication: 1992.

68. Record Number: 10006
Author(s): Tarvers, Josephine Koster.
Contributor(s):
Title : “Thys ys my mystrys boke”: English Women and Readers and Writers in Late Medieval England [Women actively participated in manuscript culture and literary production in fourteenth and fifteenth century England. Manuscript evidence shows they could be owners of books as well as translators and scribes. The author provides many examples of manuscripts that were written by and for (and circulated among) women. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: The Uses of manuscripts in literary studies: essays in memory of Judson Boyce Allen.   Edited by Charlotte Cook Morse, Penelope Reed Doob, and Marjorie Curry Woods Studies in medieval culture .   Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 1992. English Studies , 73., 1 ( 1992):  Pages 305 - 327.
Year of Publication: 1992.

69. Record Number: 10527
Author(s): Opitz, Claudia.
Contributor(s):
Title : Life in the Late Middle Ages [The late-medieval era was a period of enormous change for women in work, family, life, and religion. Although women had an inferior legal status (laws limited their rights within the family and public sphere), some freedom did exist for women within marriage. Aristocratic women could be very influential because of their economic standing, middle class women could control household budgets, and rural women and wives of urban craftsmen sometimes had their status as laborers recognized. The author provides an overview of motherhood, fertility, contraception, women’s work (in rural and urban environments), and women’s participation in the fields of education, healing, health care, and crafts. Single women and widows could exert some power in their marginal positions. The author views convents as empowering institutions for women, although some people had anxieties about the status of women mystics. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: A History of Women in the West. Volume 2: Silences of the Middle Ages.   Edited by Christiane Klapisch-Zuber .   Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1992. English Studies , 73., 1 ( 1992):  Pages 267 - 317.
Year of Publication: 1992.

70. Record Number: 10524
Author(s): Wemple, Suzanne Fonay.
Contributor(s):
Title : Women from the Fifth to the Tenth Century [The author gives an overview of laws regarding women (particularly those concerning marriage, divorce, and inheritance), in Roman law, in Germanic cultures, in Merovingian times, and in the Carolingian period. The author also describes women’s participation in religion (women in monastic orders as well as wives of deacons and priests) and women’s participation in scholarly and artistic activity (including women as scribes and authors). Monasteries gave women more access to education and more opportunities to assume active roles in scholarship and art. The decentralization of church and state in the tenth century also allowed women to make more creative social contributions. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: A History of Women in the West. Volume 2: Silences of the Middle Ages.   Edited by Christiane Klapisch-Zuber .   Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1992. Medieval Perspectives , 7., ( 1992):  Pages 169 - 201.
Year of Publication: 1992.

71. Record Number: 20785
Author(s): Larsen, Britta Martensen
Contributor(s):
Title : Die Bedeutung mittelalterlicher Miniaturen für Carl Th. Dreyers Film "La Passion de Jeanne d'Arc" [Analyzes the similarities between the sets designed by Hermann Warm for the 1927 film "La Passion de Jeanne d'Arc" and the illuminated miniatures in the Livre des Merveilles and Les très riches heures du Duc de Berry.Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte , 51., ( 1992):  Pages 136 - 149.
Year of Publication: 1992.

72. Record Number: 10289
Author(s): Dobson, Barrie.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Role of Jewish Women in Medieval England [The article studies some of the conditions of life for medieval Jewish women in England, particularly in terms of the pressures to convert to Christianity. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Christianity and Judaism: papers read at the 1991 Summer Meeting and the 1992 Winter Meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society.   Edited by Diana Wood Studies in Church History, 29.   Blackwell for the Ecclesiastical History Society, 1992. Medieval Perspectives , 7., ( 1992):  Pages 145 - 167.
Year of Publication: 1992.

73. Record Number: 9498
Author(s): Johnson, Lynn Staley.
Contributor(s):
Title : Margery Kempe: social critic [The article considers Kempe as a social commentator, and discusses the way she uses her particular vision of social reality not only to support her spiritual biography, but to critique the community. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies , 22., 2 (Spring 1992):  Pages 159 - 184.
Year of Publication: 1992.

74. Record Number: 10176
Author(s): Scott, Karen.
Contributor(s):
Title : St. Catherine of Siena, "Apostola" [The author argues that Catherine has most often been viewed either as the activist supporter of the papacy or the miraculous mystic celebrated in the canonization process. Scott argues that the autobiographical material in her letters paints a different picture. She saw herself as an apostle, a wandering preacher and peacemaker who integrated both the political and the visionary in a life of sacrifice and service. Scott suggests that she may have led such an active and unconvential life in part because she was not concerned about gender distinctions. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Church History (Full Text via JSTOR) 61, 1 (March 1992): 34-46. Link Info
Year of Publication: 1992.

75. Record Number: 8688
Author(s): Archer, Rowena E.
Contributor(s):
Title : How Ladies ... Who Live on Their Manors Ought to Manage Their Households and Estates: Women as Landholders and Administrators in the Later Middle Ages [The author studies the range of administrative roles held by women landholders and estate managers in medieval England. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Woman is a Worthy Wight: Women in English Society c. 1200-1500.   Edited by P.J.P. Goldberg .   Alan Sutton Publishing, 1992.  Pages 149 - 181.
Year of Publication: 1992.

76. Record Number: 8689
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : And Hir Name was Charite: Charitable Giving by and for Women in Late Medieval Yorkshire [Using evidence from Yorkshire wills, the author attempts to determine patterns of female charity and poverty in fifteenth-century England. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Woman is a Worthy Wight: Women in English Society c. 1200-1500.   Edited by P.J.P. Goldberg .   Alan Sutton Publishing, 1992.  Pages 182 - 211.
Year of Publication: 1992.

77. Record Number: 9486
Author(s): Lucas, Peter J.
Contributor(s):
Title : Judith and the Woman Hero [The author demonstrates that the Old English poem “Judith” uses the female Biblical hero to illustrate the theme of the power of faith. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Yearbook of English Studies , 22., ( 1992):  Pages 17 - 27.
Year of Publication: 1992.

78. Record Number: 10250
Author(s): Holloway, Julia Bolton.
Contributor(s):
Title : Bride, Margery, Julian, and Alice: Bridget of Sweden’s Textual Community in Medieval England [Kempe models her devotional practices on Saint Bridget of Sweden, replicating the saint’s writings, life, and pilgrimages through her own book and travels. In her pilgrimages, Kempe visited the same sites Bridget did in her lifetime. Pilgrimage was available to both men and women, and writing a text enabled women to gain some access to power by narrating their travels. The author traces the lives, texts, and travels of historical figures like Saint Bridget of Sweden and Julian of Norwich, as well as Dame Alison (Chaucer’s fictional Wife of Bath). Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Margery Kempe: A Book of Essays.   Edited by Sandra J. McEntire .   Garland Publishing, 1992. Yearbook of English Studies , 22., ( 1992):  Pages 203 - 222.
Year of Publication: 1992.

79. Record Number: 9068
Author(s): Dickson, Gary.
Contributor(s):
Title : Clare's Dream [The author examines the canonization documents of Saint Clare of Assisi. The records depict her as a strong and determined woman who forsook her rich family and embraced a spiritual life, following the example set by Francis of Assisi. They also indicate that after Francis' death, Clare had a dream in which she sucked milk from his breast. After describing various scholars' interpretations of the dream, the author suggests that the dream demonstrates Clare's intimacy with and dependency upon Francis. It presents a more human side to the heroic woman described in later hagiographical texts. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Mediaevistik , 5., ( 1992):  Pages 39 - 55.
Year of Publication: 1992.

80. Record Number: 8630
Author(s): Ewan, Elizabeth.
Contributor(s):
Title : Scottish Portias: Women in the Courts in Mediaeval Scottish Towns [The author considers the extent to which medieval Scottish women were able to use the court system to advance their own interests. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Journal of the Canadian Historical Association , 3., ( 1992):  Pages 27 - 43.
Year of Publication: 1992.

81. Record Number: 8573
Author(s): Hanawalt, Barbara A.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Widow's Mite: Provisions for Medieval London Widows [The author uses London plea roles and wills to examine the extent to which widows were able to recover their dowers, and suggests that widows actively participated in medieval law courts. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Upon My Husband's Death: Widows in the Literature and Histories of Medieval Europe.   Edited by Louise Mirrer Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Civilization .   University of Michigan Press, 1992. Journal of the Canadian Historical Association , 3., ( 1992):  Pages 21 - 45.
Year of Publication: 1992.

82. Record Number: 8575
Author(s): Bennett, Judith M.
Contributor(s):
Title : Widows in the Medieval English Countryside [The author, while arguing that widows took an active part in the legal issues of households in rural medieval England, also explores the problematics of their legal status. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Upon My Husband's Death: Widows in the Literature and Histories of Medieval Europe.   Edited by Louise Mirrer Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Civilization .   University of Michigan Press, 1992. Journal of the Canadian Historical Association , 3., ( 1992):  Pages 69 - 114.
Year of Publication: 1992.

83. Record Number: 7414
Author(s): Scherb, Victor I.
Contributor(s):
Title : Worldly and Sacred Messengers in the Digby "Mary Magdalene" [The author claims that, in the Digby "Mary Magdalene" play, Mary herself becomes an active Christian messenger or preacher. Title note supplied by Feminae].
Source: English Studies , 73., 1 ( 1992):  Pages 1 - 9.
Year of Publication: 1992.

84. Record Number: 8686
Author(s): Goldberg, P.J.P.
Contributor(s):
Title : For Better, for Worse: Marriage and Economic Opportunity for Women in Town and Country [The article considers the difference in economic opportunities for women between towns and rural areas, and argues that economic autonomy had an impact on the age at which women married. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Woman is a Worthy Wight: Women in English Society c. 1200-1500.   Edited by P.J.P. Goldberg .   Alan Sutton Publishing, 1992. English Studies , 73., 1 ( 1992):  Pages 108 - 125.
Year of Publication: 1992.

85. Record Number: 8574
Author(s): Crabb, Ann Morton.
Contributor(s):
Title : How Typical Was Alessandra Macinghi Strozzi of Fifteenth-Century Florentine Widows? [The author studies a Florentine widow who became an agent and representative of her family (a role normally unavailable to patrician women, but one that carried many hardships) after her husband's death in exile. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Upon My Husband's Death: Widows in the Literature and Histories of Medieval Europe.   Edited by Louise Mirrer Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Civilization .   University of Michigan Press, 1992. English Studies , 73., 1 ( 1992):  Pages 47 - 68.
Year of Publication: 1992.

86. Record Number: 12288
Author(s): Kazhdan, A. P. and A.-M. Talbot
Contributor(s):
Title : Women and Iconoclasm [The authors briefly survey women's activities in support of icons, including those individuals who were later honored as saints, women who wrote hymns, and female correspondents of Abbot Theodore of Stoudios. Although iconoclasm was defeated, many of its principles triumphed including anti-feminism. Women's public roles were curtailedand their efforts to defend icons were obscured in the historic record. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Byzantinische Zeitschrift , 84., ( 1991):  Pages 391 - 408. Reprinted in Women and Religious Life in Byzantium. By Alice-Mary Talbot. Variorum Collected Studies Series. Ashgate, 2001. Article 3
Year of Publication: 1991.

87. Record Number: 10887
Author(s): De Bingen, Hildegarde and Laurence. Moulinier
Contributor(s): Børresen, Kari Elisabeth, reviewer
Title : Gender and the Authority of Friars: The Significance of Holy Women for Thirteenth-Century Franciscans and Dominicans [In their letters and other writings, friars often reflected on their relationships with devout women. As preachers, friars exerted pastoral authority over devout women, but they also saw these particular women as having a privileged relationship with God. Although the friars admired the close relationship these women had with the divine, they also asserted their own distance and superiority over the women along the lines of gender difference. At the same time, the friars used gender difference as a means of expressing doubts about themselves and the limits of their own powers. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Church History (Full Text via JSTOR) 60, 4 (Dec. 1991): 445-460. Link Info
Year of Publication: 1991.

88. Record Number: 13054
Author(s): Germain, Ellen.
Contributor(s):
Title : Lunete, Women, and Power in Chrétien's "Yvain" [One of the Curtain Talk given before performances of "The Lark." Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Romance Quarterly , 38., 1 (February 1991):  Pages 15 - 25.
Year of Publication: 1991.

89. Record Number: 11210
Author(s): Matlock, Wendy A.
Contributor(s):
Title : Marginality as Woman’s Freedom: The Case of Floripe [In Jean Bagnyon’s 1478 prose rendition of “Fierabras” (a twelfth-century poem), Floripe (the sister of Fierabras) is a rare example of a woman who lives an active life. Floripe’s magical, near-divine otherness as a Saracen princess allows her extraordinary scope of action in both the public and domestic spheres. As an outsider to Christian society, she is able to act freely, and even after her marriage to a Christian nobleman she remains in a powerful space between two societies. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Journal of the Rocky Mountain Medieval and Renaissance Association , 12., ( 1991):  Pages 41 - 59.
Year of Publication: 1991.

90. Record Number: 16592
Author(s): Solterer, Helen.
Contributor(s):
Title : Figures of Female Militancy in Medieval France [The article discusses the sexual dimensions of medieval tournaments, and shows that the gender roles enforced by chivalry do not change much when women are represented as warriors and combatants. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society (Full Text via JSTOR) 16, 3 (Spring 1991): 522-549. Link Info
Year of Publication: 1991.

91. Record Number: 11800
Author(s): Chojnacki, Stanley.
Contributor(s):
Title : “The Most Serious Duty”: Motherhood, Gender, and Patrician Culture in Renaissance Venice [The essay analyzes the gendered child-rearing roles of patrician families in republican Venice, and shows that women were able to work with or against the wishes of their husbands. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Refiguring Woman: Perspectives on Gender and the Italian Renaissance.   Edited by Marilyn Migiel and Juliana Schiesari .   Cornell University Press, 1991.  Pages 133 - 154. Republished in slightly altered form as “The Most Serious Duty”: Motherhood, Gender, and Patrician Culture. By Stanley Chojnacki. Women and Men in Renaissance Venice: Twelve Essays on Patrician Society. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000. Pages 169-182. [Reprinted in The Italian Renaissance. Edited by Paula Findlen. Blackwell Publishing, 2002. Pages 173-191
Year of Publication: 1991.

92. Record Number: 10685
Author(s): Secor, John R.
Contributor(s):
Title : Le porpenser: Forethought Before Speech or Action in "Tisbe" and "Nicolette" [The female protagonists in these two French courtly poems present the woman's role as one of premeditated action and careful planning. The male's role, conversely, is brutish; the male protagonists only act in response to sudden emotion and are ridiculed as a result. In contrast to conventional depictions of lovers who meditate upon their lovers and daydream randomly, these women display active goal-oriented thinking. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Medieval Perspectives , 6., ( 1991):  Pages 76 - 86.
Year of Publication: 1991.

93. Record Number: 11228
Author(s): Tallan, Cheryl.
Contributor(s):
Title : Medieval Jewish Widows: Their Control of Resources
Source: Jewish History , 5., 1 (Spring 1991):  Pages 63 - 74.
Year of Publication: 1991.

94. Record Number: 9543
Author(s): Frank, Hardy Long.
Contributor(s):
Title : Seeing the Prioress Whole [While many literary critics seek to psychoanalyze Chaucer’s Prioress, a more productive way to understand her is to examine the role of prioresses in fourteenth-century England. Prioresses were well-respected; they oversaw the daily activities of convents, entertained travelers of all classes, and traveled frequently on business trips. Rather than being childlike, sentimental, or naive, the Prioress is a capable professional woman who deserves respect. The Prioress’s Marian tale is also well-suited to her vocation and may perhaps refer to Chaucer’s own associations with the cult of Notre Dame du Puy. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Chaucer Review , 25., 3 ( 1991):  Pages 229 - 237.
Year of Publication: 1991.

95. Record Number: 8660
Author(s): McSheffrey, Shannon.
Contributor(s):
Title : Women and Lollardy: A Reassessment [The author examines the role of women in the Lollard movement (a heretical sect in medieval England) by focusing on a Lollard community in fifteenth-century East Anglia. Members of this community believed that women as well as men could become preachers; they held that marriage was a private affair that did not need solemnization in church; and many social factors, such as the influence of one’s immediate social circle, compelled both men and women to join the movement. The author explores the court records of two female Lollards, Hawise Mone and Margery Baxter, and shows them to be assertive and daring women. Nonetheless, the author concludes that women were not any more involved in the Lollard movement than they were in orthodox religion. Title note supplied by Feminae].
Source: Canadian Journal of History , 26., ( 1991):  Pages 199 - 223.
Year of Publication: 1991.

96. Record Number: 12748
Author(s): Al-Heitty, Abd Al-Kareem.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Contrasting Spheres of Free Women and Jawari in the Literary Life of the Early Abbasid Caliphate [Women, both bond and free, contributed much to Arabic literary life in the courts of the Abbasid caliphs. The poetry of women poets illustrates the overlapping social spheres occupied by free noble women and jawari (female slaves or prisoners of war) in early Abbasid times. Women of the courts could play active roles in governance and education and also played a crucial role in majalis (courtly social gatherings) by composing and performing poetry or facilitating more serious assemblies for intellectual discussion. However, as the luxury of the court increased and the number of jawari in the court grew, noble born upper class women began to be subjected to more circumscribed social roles and strict moral codes. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Al-Masåq , 3., ( 1990):  Pages 31 - 51.
Year of Publication: 1990.

97. Record Number: 12801
Author(s): Edbury, Peter
Contributor(s):
Title : Women in Orderic Vitalis [The author argues that, in his writing, Orderic treated women as part of the social order, not as a class apart; Orderic also showed women acting, albeit in limited roles, in his society. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: The Haskins Society Journal , 2., ( 1990):  Pages 105 - 121. Reprinted in Piety, Power, and History in Medieval England and Normandy. By Marjorie Chibnall. Ashgate Variorum, 2000. Article 6
Year of Publication: 1990.

98. Record Number: 12860
Author(s): McLaughlin, Megan.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Woman Warrior: Gender, Warfare, and Society in Medieval Europe [The article studies the small group of medieval women warriors, and considers its implications for gender and society. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Women's Studies , 17., 40241 ( 1990):  Pages 193 - 209.
Year of Publication: 1990.

99. Record Number: 12790
Author(s): Jewell, Helen M.
Contributor(s):
Title : Women at the Courts of the Manor of Wakefield, 1348-1350 [The author studies the fourteenth-century manorial court rolls from Wakefield in order to study women’s involvement in petty crime, in landholding and civil pleas activities, and in miscellaneous entries which offer information about the economic and social standing of individual women. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Northern History , 26., ( 1990):  Pages 59 - 81.
Year of Publication: 1990.

100. Record Number: 11192
Author(s): Harris, Barbara J.
Contributor(s):
Title : Property, Power, and Personal Relations: Elite Mothers and Sons in Yorkist and Early Tudor England [Women were often marginalized by patriarchal power structures that placed the father at the head of the family, but the birth of a son often elevated the wife’s position. Since the first son was greatly valued in a system of primogenitural inheritance, noble mothers often had close emotional ties to their sons. The political and social future of the family often rested on the mother’s ability to manage the household, display the family’s wealth and status, and negotiate marriages and other alliances for the family’s children. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society (Full Text via JSTOR) 15, 3 (Spring 1990): 606-632. Link Info
Year of Publication: 1990.

101. Record Number: 12797
Author(s): Murray, Jacqueline.
Contributor(s):
Title : On the Origins and Role of 'Wise Women' in Causes For Annulment on the Grounds of Male Impotence [Article includes an abstract. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Journal of Medieval History , 16., 3 ( 1990):  Pages 235 - 249.
Year of Publication: 1990.