Feminae: Medieval Women and Gender Index


235 Record(s) Found in our database

SEE ALSO: women storytellers

Search Results

1. Record Number: 27566
Author(s): Higley, Sarah
Contributor(s):
Title : Dressing up the Nuns: The “Lingua ignota” and Hildegard of Bingen’s Clothing [The author analyzes the words that Hildegard invented for women’s clothing in the “Lingua ignota.” The abbess placed an emphasis on hierarchy and order, marking the special status of virgins. Higley connects this to the crowns and floor-length veils worn by Hildegard’s nuns on feast days. The canoness Tenxwind wrote Hildegard complaining about this practice as immodest. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: Medieval Clothing and Textiles , 6., ( 2010):  Pages 93 - 109.
Year of Publication: 2010.

2. Record Number: 20864
Author(s): Roselli, Emanuela
Contributor(s):
Title : Anna Comnena e la tragedia greca [Anna Komnena quoted Greek tragedy, sometimes through intermediate sources. At other times, she quoted directly from Euripides. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: Medioevo Greco: Rivista di Storia e Filologia Bizantina , 8., ( 2008):  Pages 275 - 281.
Year of Publication: 2008.

3. Record Number: 27116
Author(s): Giovini, Marco
Contributor(s):
Title : "A nugace in castum": L’Itinerario salvifico di "Callimaco," "Adulescens" innamorato de Rosvita [The "Callimachus" of Hrotsvitha is based on the plays of Terence with poetic influences from Prudentius. The play focuses on the desires of Callimachus for a married Christian woman. He even desires her dead body. The play ends with the conversion of Callimachus to a Christian life. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: Mediaevalia , 28., 2 ( 2007):  Pages 137 - 164.
Year of Publication: 2007.

4. Record Number: 18397
Author(s): Twomey, Lesley K
Contributor(s):
Title : Poverty and Richly Decorated Garments: A Re-Evaluation of Their Significance in the "Vita Christi" of Isabel de Villena
Source: Medieval Clothing and Textiles , 3., ( 2007):  Pages 119 - 134.
Year of Publication: 2007.

5. Record Number: 16304
Author(s): Weiss, Julian.
Contributor(s):
Title : What Every Noblewoman Needs to Know: Cultural Literacy in Late-Medieval Spain
Source: Speculum , 81., 4 (October 2006):  Pages 1118 - 1149.
Year of Publication: 2006.

6. Record Number: 13657
Author(s): Hutchison, Ann M.
Contributor(s):
Title : Approaching Medieval Women Mystics in the Twenty-First Century [The author briefly explores themes of interest to students including gender issues, manuscripts and textual transmission, and connections among the women mystics. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Approaching Medieval English Anchoritic and Mystical Texts. Christianity and Culture: Issues in Teaching and Research Series, Volume 2.   Edited by Dee Dyas, Valerie Edden, and Roger Ellis .   D. S. Brewer, 2005. Viator , 36., ( 2005):  Pages 175 - 183.
Year of Publication: 2005.

7. Record Number: 14741
Author(s): Haycock, Marged.
Contributor(s):
Title : Sy abl fodd, Sibli fain: Sibyl in Medieval Wales [The author analyzes two different instances of the Sibyl figure in Welsh literature. The first examples come from two thirteenth century Welsh translations of the Latin Tiburtine oracles, "Breuddwyd Sibli" and "Proffwydoliaeth Sibli Ddoeth." The second example is drawn from a poem by the female poet Gwerful Mechain who countered Ieuan Dyfi's misogynist complaint by recounting the lives of brave women capped by the Sibyl. Haycock suggests that Gwerful may have taken the example of the Sibyl as a female forerunner to legitimize her public writing. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source:   Edited by Joseph Falaky Nagy and Leslie Ellen Jones Celtic Studies Association of North America (CSANA) Yearbook , 3-4., ( 2005):  Pages 115 - 130. Heroic Poets and Poetic Heroes in Celtic Tradition: A Festschrift for Patrick K. Ford. Edited by Joseph Falaky Nagy and Leslie Ellen Jones. Four Courts Press, 2005
Year of Publication: 2005.

8. Record Number: 14568
Author(s): Green, Jonathan P.
Contributor(s):
Title : A New Gloss on Hildegard of Bingen's "Lingua Ignota"
Source: Viator , 36., ( 2005):  Pages 217 - 234.
Year of Publication: 2005.

9. Record Number: 10825
Author(s): Fraeters, Veerle.
Contributor(s):
Title : Gender and Genre: The Design of Hadewijch's "Book of Visions" [The author analyzes the structure of Hadewijch's individual visions as well as the overall structure of her "Book of Visions." The article concludes with three appendices: Patterns and thematic contents in the fourteen visions, Case study of narrative structures for the visions, and Hadewijch's visions outlined in terms of Richard of St. Victor's scheme. Title note supplied by Feminae.
Source: The Voice of Silence: Women's Literacy in a Men's Church.   Edited by Thérèse de Hemptinne and María Eugenia Góngora Medieval Church Studies .   Brepols, 2004. Celtic Studies Association of North America (CSANA) Yearbook , 3-4., ( 2005):  Pages 57 - 81.
Year of Publication: 2004.

10. Record Number: 10848
Author(s): Nicholson, Francesca.
Contributor(s):
Title : Seeing Women Troubadours without the "-itz" and "isms" [The author analyzes two poems attributed to women, Na Bieris de Roman and Azalais. Nicholson argues that they sometimes identify with a male lover and sometimes speak as women. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Troubled Vision: Gender, Sexuality, and Sight in Medieval Text and Image.   Edited by Emma Campbell and Robert Mills .   Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. Celtic Studies Association of North America (CSANA) Yearbook , 3-4., ( 2005):  Pages 63 - 76.
Year of Publication: 2004.

11. Record Number: 10569
Author(s): Scheepsma, Wybren.
Contributor(s):
Title : Mysticism and Modern Devotion: Alijt Bake's (1415-1455) Lessons in the Mystical Way of Living [Alijt Bake had a special gift for the mystical life. When she became prioress of Galilea (a house associated with the Modern Devotion), she attempted to reform the nuns' external methods toward a more internalized spirituality. Bake wrote texts for the nuns as well as a spiritual autobiography and a letter from exile. The leaders of the Windesheim Chapter not only removed her as prioress in 1454 but sent her from Ghent to Antwerp. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Spirituality renewed: studies on significant representatives of the Modern Devotion.   Edited by Hein Blommestijn, Charles Caspers, and Rijcklof Hofman Studies in spirituality. Supplement .  10 2003. Journal of Medieval History , 29., 1 (March 2003):  Pages 157 - 167.
Year of Publication: 2003.

12. Record Number: 11086
Author(s): Savage, Anne.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Communal Authorship of "Ancrene Wisse" [Savage argues that the male cleric traditionally identified as the author of the "Ancrene Wisse" wrote out of his long experience with the three anchoress sisters and reacted to their comments and suggestions. The text should properly be considered to have been jointly authored. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: A Companion to "Ancrene Wisse."   Edited by Yoko Wada .   D. S. Brewer, 2003. Celtic Studies Association of North America (CSANA) Yearbook , 3-4., ( 2005):  Pages 45 - 55.
Year of Publication: 2003.

13. Record Number: 11378
Author(s): Passmore, S. Elizabeth.
Contributor(s):
Title : Painting Lions, Drawing Lines, Writing Lives: Male Authorship in the Lives of Christina of Markyate, Margery Kempe, and Margaret Paston [First article in a Roundtable series entitled "Are You Still Deciding Whether to be a Medievalist or a Feminist?"]
Source: Medieval Feminist Forum , 36., (Fall 2003):  Pages 36 - 40.
Year of Publication: 2003.

14. Record Number: 10447
Author(s): Klinck, Anne L.
Contributor(s):
Title : Poetic Markers of Gender in Medieval "Woman's Song": Was Anonymous a Woman? [The author examines five pairs of love-complaints, written wholly or in part in a woman's voice. The poems are drawn from Old English, Occitan, German, Italian, Galician-Portuguese, and Middle English. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Neophilologus , 87., 3 (July 2003):  Pages 339 - 359.
Year of Publication: 2003.

15. Record Number: 9765
Author(s): Boon, Jessica A.
Contributor(s):
Title : Trinitarian Love Mysticism: Ruusbroec, Hadewijch, and the Gendered Experience of the Divine [The author emphasizes the importance of this case because Ruusbroec acknowledged the influence of Hadewijch as a holy woman on his thinking. Boon argues that this indicates Ruusbroec's belief in woman's spiritual equality and that it was a woman who best formulated theological metaphysics for union with God. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Church History , 72., 3 (September 2003):  Pages 484 - 503.
Year of Publication: 2003.

16. Record Number: 9718
Author(s): Stephenson, Paul.
Contributor(s):
Title : Anna Comnena's "Alexiad" as a Source for the Second Crusade?
Source: Journal of Medieval History , 29., 1 (March 2003):  Pages 41 - 54.
Year of Publication: 2003.

17. Record Number: 8057
Author(s): Smith, Anne Collins.
Contributor(s):
Title : The "Problemata" of Heloise [The author provides a brief overview of Heloise's life and an introduction to the "Problemata", a list of questions regarding scripture that were collected by Heloise and her students and sent to Abelard. The author argues that the text demonstrates both Heloise's scholarship and her patient concern as a teacher. Excepts from the "Problemata" follow in Latin and English translation. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: Women Writing Latin from Roman Antiquity to Early Modern Europe. Volume 2: Medieval Women Writing Latin.   Edited by Laurie J. Churchill, Phyllis R. Brown, and Jane E. Jeffrey .   Routledge, 2002. Studies in Spirituality , 12., ( 2002):  Pages 173 - 196.
Year of Publication: 2002.

18. Record Number: 8059
Author(s): Griffiths, Fiona.
Contributor(s):
Title : Herrad of Hohenbourg and the Poetry of the "Hortus deliciarum: Cantat tibi cantica" [The author provides a brief overview of Herrad's encyclopedic "Hortus." She suggests that in addition to the dedicatory poem for the women of Hohenberg, Herrad probably also wrote "De primo homine" and "Rithmus de Domino" which share her same tone of joyful love for Christ. Latin texts and English translations of selected poems from the "Hortus deliciarum follow." Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Women Writing Latin from Roman Antiquity to Early Modern Europe. Volume 2: Medieval Women Writing Latin.   Edited by Laurie J. Churchill, Phyllis R. Brown, and Jane E. Jeffrey .   Routledge, 2002. Studies in Spirituality , 12., ( 2002):  Pages 231 - 263.
Year of Publication: 2002.

19. Record Number: 6224
Author(s): Nicholson, Francesca.
Contributor(s):
Title : Seeing Women Troubadours without the "-itz" and "-isms"
Source: Seeing Gender: Perspectives on Medieval Gender and Sexuality. Gender and Medieval Studies Conference, King's College, London, January 4-6, 2002. .  2002. Journal of Medieval History , 29., 1 (March 2003):
Year of Publication: 2002.

20. Record Number: 7397
Author(s): Jordan, Constance.
Contributor(s):
Title : More from "The Other Voice" in Early Modern Europe [The author writes a review essay concerning seven recent titles in the University of Chicago Press Series "The Other Voice." Three of the titles are by medieval authors: Sister Bartolomea Riccoboni, "Life and Death in a Venetian Convent;" Lucrezia Tornabuoni de' Medici, "Sacred Narratives;" and Cassandra Fedele, "Letters and Orations." Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Renaissance Quarterly , 55., 1 (Spring 2002):  Pages 258 - 271.
Year of Publication: 2002.

21. Record Number: 8056
Author(s): Tsakiropoulou-Summers, Tatiana.
Contributor(s):
Title : Hildegard of Bingen: The Teutonic Prophetess [The author presents a brief overview of Hildegard's life and works, emphasizing the various strategies Hildegard used to lend both her writings and her actions the kind of authority generally denied to women. The appended Latin texts and English translations are excerpts from Hildegard's writings and were chosen to demonstrate the breadth of her accomplishments. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Women Writing Latin from Roman Antiquity to Early Modern Europe. Volume 2: Medieval Women Writing Latin.   Edited by Laurie J. Churchill, Phyllis R. Brown, and Jane E. Jeffrey .   Routledge, 2002. Renaissance Quarterly , 55., 1 (Spring 2002):  Pages 133 - 172.
Year of Publication: 2002.

22. Record Number: 10833
Author(s): Classen, Albrecht.
Contributor(s):
Title : Hadewijch als erotische Liebesdichterin
Source: Studies in Spirituality , 12., ( 2002):  Pages 23 - 42.
Year of Publication: 2002.

23. Record Number: 8055
Author(s): Sheerin, Daniel.
Contributor(s):
Title : Sisters in the Literary Agon: Texts from Communities of Women on the Mortuary Roll of the Abbess Matilda of La Trinité, Caen [The author provides a brief introduction to the mortuary roll for Matilda, abbess of la Trinité monastery in Caen. Mortuary rolls announced the deaths of prominent religious women and men and provided space for monasteries and cathedrals to record prayers and commemorative poems. The author suggests that groups competed for the most elegant and rhetorically inventive entries. He also suggests that poems written by nuns may have prompted the misogynous comments in several of the entries from male religious communities. Latin texts and English translations follow of Matilda's obituary notice and the poems on the mortuary roll from women's communities. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: Women Writing Latin from Roman Antiquity to Early Modern Europe. Volume 2: Medieval Women Writing Latin.   Edited by Laurie J. Churchill, Phyllis R. Brown, and Jane E. Jeffrey .   Routledge, 2002. Studies in Spirituality , 12., ( 2002):  Pages 93 - 131.
Year of Publication: 2002.

24. Record Number: 8054
Author(s): Damen, Mark.
Contributor(s):
Title : Hrotsvit's "Callimachus" and the Art of Comedy [The author provides a brief introduction to his English translation of Hrotsvitha's play, "Callimachus." He concentrates on the classical sources and the comedic elements that were revealed through performance. He also discusses the challenges of translating Hrotsvitha's humor, both verbal and visual. The Latin text and the author's English translation are appended. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: Women Writing Latin from Roman Antiquity to Early Modern Europe. Volume 2: Medieval Women Writing Latin.   Edited by Laurie J. Churchill, Phyllis R. Brown, and Jane E. Jeffrey .   Routledge, 2002. Studies in Spirituality , 12., ( 2002):  Pages 37 - 91.
Year of Publication: 2002.

25. Record Number: 6737
Author(s): Frankopan, Peter.
Contributor(s):
Title : Perception and Projection of Prejudice: Anna Comnena, the "Alexiad," and the First Crusade [The author argues that historians' judgment of Anna Komnena and her "Alexiad" is biased and inaccurate. He suggests that the errors in the text are a result of her sources and that she goes out of her way to present her father, the emperor, in an accurate and balanced fashion. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Gendering the Crusades.   Edited by Susan B. Edgington and Sarah Lambert .   University of Wales Press, 2001. Journal of the Early Book Society for the Study of Manuscripts and Printing History , 4., ( 2001):  Pages 59 - 76.
Year of Publication: 2001.

26. Record Number: 6050
Author(s): Ferrante, Joan M.
Contributor(s):
Title : Licet longinquis regionibus corpore separati: Letters as a Link in and to the Middle Ages [in a presidential address delivered to the Medieval Academy of America, Ferrante describes the goals and contents of the online database "Epistolae" (http://db.ccnmtl.columbia.edu/Ferrante/about2.html) that presents the texts of letters from and to women, 4th through 13th centuries; the author traces a number of themes from the letters including women's involvement in public struggles, support of women by other women, and strong relationships between women and men].
Source: Speculum , 76., 4 (October 2001):  Pages 877 - 895.
Year of Publication: 2001.

27. Record Number: 6022
Author(s): Wailes, Stephen L.
Contributor(s):
Title : Beyond Virginity: Flesh and Spirit in the Plays of Hrotsvit of Gandersheim [The author argues that the theme of Hrotsvit's plays is the flesh versus the spirit not virginity as many earlier critics have maintained. The author uses the heroines' names for the titles of four of the plays ("Agape, Chiona, and Hurena" in place of "Dulcitius"; "Drusiana" in place of "Calimachus"; "Maria" in place of "Abraham"; and "Thais" in place of "Pafnutius") while the author retains the traditional titles for "Gallicanus" and "Sapientia".]
Source: Speculum , 76., 1 ( 2001):  Pages 1 - 27. Full-text of Dulcitus and Gallicanus in English (from the Medieval Sourcebook).
Year of Publication: 2001.

28. Record Number: 37143
Author(s):
Contributor(s): Green, Monica H., ed. and trans.
Title : The Trotula: A Medieval Compendium of Women's Medicine
Source: The Trotula: A Medieval Compendium of Women's Medicine.   Edited by Monica H. Green .   University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001. Journal of the Early Book Society for the Study of Manuscripts and Printing History , 4., ( 2001):  Pages 70 - 191.
Year of Publication: 2001.

29. Record Number: 6078
Author(s): Quispe-Agnoli, Rocío.
Contributor(s):
Title : Teaching, Learning, Reading, and Writing: Educational Tools from Women for Women in Fifteenth-Century Spain [The author considers women writers in Iberia, mostly nuns, and the religious thinking that allowed them a certain amount of education and opportunities to write].
Source: Magistra , 7., 1 (Summer 2001):  Pages 30 - 51.
Year of Publication: 2001.

30. Record Number: 5604
Author(s): Mews, Constant J.
Contributor(s):
Title : Hugh Metel, Heloise, and Peter Abelard: The Letters of an Augustinian Canon and the Challenge of Innovation in Twelfth-Century Lorraine [in the Appendix the author presents transcriptions along with English translations of the two Latin letters written by Hugh Metel to Heloise].
Source: Viator , 32., ( 2001):  Pages 59 - 91.
Year of Publication: 2001.

31. Record Number: 6839
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Popular Literacy in the Middle Ages: "The Book of Margery Kempe" [The author argues that Margery Kempe demonstrates a text-based literacy in her text because she has a wide knowledge of religious writings, many from heart, that she learned by listening. Margery Kempe expands our definition of literate because of her sophisticated composition and use of written sources. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Popular Literacy: Studies in Cultural Practices and Poetics.   Edited by John Trimbur .   University of Pittsburgh Press, 2001. Viator , 32., ( 2001):  Pages 56
Year of Publication: 2001.

32. Record Number: 6723
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Herrad of Hohenbourg: A Synthesis of Learning in "The Garden of Delights"
Source: Listen, Daughter: The "Speculum virginum" and the Formation of Religious Women in the Middle Ages.   Edited by Constant J. Mews .   The New Middle Ages Series. Palgrave, 2001. Viator , 32., ( 2001):  Pages 221 - 243.
Year of Publication: 2001.

33. Record Number: 7201
Author(s): Léglu, Catherine.
Contributor(s):
Title : Did Women Perform Satirical Poetry? "Trobairitz" and "Soldadeiras" in Medieval Occitan Poetry [The author argues that women performed some satirical and political poems before audiences. Modern scholars have been slow to recognize women's roles as performers, particularly in the case of these poems that do not concern love, the topic deemed by scholars to be most suitable for women. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Forum for Modern Language Studies , 37., 1 (January 2001):  Pages 15 - 25.
Year of Publication: 2001.

34. Record Number: 11156
Author(s): Lee, Christina.
Contributor(s):
Title : Voices in the Wilderness [Anglo-Latin women's writings]
Source: Old English Newsletter , 34., 3 (Spring 2001): Appendix A: Abstracts of Papers in Anglo-Saxon Studies. Conference paper presented at the Thirty-Sixth International Congress on Medieval Studies, the Medieval Institute, Western Michigan University, May 3-6, 2001, Nineteenth Symposium on the Sources of A
Year of Publication: 2001.

35. Record Number: 10185
Author(s): Langdon, Alison.
Contributor(s):
Title : Pois dompna s'ave/d'amar: Na Castellosa's "Cansos" and Medieval Feminist Scholarship [The author explores feudal metaphors in the poetry of the trobairitz Castelloza. Langdon argues that it is important to historicize Castelloza's speakers who have, in many respects, taken up the supplicant position of the troubadours. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Medieval Feminist Forum , 32., (Fall 2001):  Pages 32 - 42.
Year of Publication: 2001.

36. Record Number: 8958
Author(s): Cerquiglini-Toulet, Jacqueline.
Contributor(s):
Title : Christine de Pizan and the Book: Programs and Modes of Reading, Strategies for Publication [The author explores the associations Christine makes with books, reading, and writing in her texts. For Christine writing ensures her immortality and makes a connection with her father. She is concerned that her entire body of work be read in the future and knows that multiple copies must be made to help ensure survival. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Journal of the Early Book Society for the Study of Manuscripts and Printing History , 4., ( 2001):  Pages 112 - 126. Issue Title: Women and Book Culture in Late Medieval and Early Modern France
Year of Publication: 2001.

37. Record Number: 4595
Author(s): Miller, Mara.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Lady in the Garden: Subjects and Objects in an Ideal World [The author contrasts Japanse pictures of women in gardens (women authors, women writing, and women characters from women's writings) with those of medieval Europe in which women do not write in gardens].
Source: Crossing the Bridge: Comparative Essays on Medieval European and Heian Japanese Women Writers.   Edited by Barbara Stevenson and Cynthia Ho .   Palgrave, 2000.  Pages 189 - 211.
Year of Publication: 2000.

38. Record Number: 7171
Author(s): Ives, Margaret and Almut Suerbaum
Contributor(s):
Title : The Middle Ages [The authors provide a brief overview of women authors in Germany, surveying female scribes, religious writers, and later women authors at princely courts. The individuals described include the monastic scribes, Gisela of Kerssenbrock and Guda, the religious writers, Hrotsvitha of Gandersheim, Frau Ava, Hildegard of Bingen, and Mechthild von Magdeburg, and the noble women, Elisabeth von Nassau-Saarbrücken and Eleonore von Schottland. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: A History of Women's Writing in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland.   Edited by Jo Catling .   Cambridge University Press, 2000. Journal of the Early Book Society for the Study of Manuscripts and Printing History , 4., ( 2001):  Pages 13 - 26.
Year of Publication: 2000.

39. Record Number: 4843
Author(s): Al-Sajdi, Dana.
Contributor(s):
Title : Trespassing the Male Domain: The "Qasidah" of Layla Al-Akhyaliyyah ["Here, she trespasses in the male domain by composing her poetry in a historically and experientially male form, but retains her female poetic voice by manipulating the form in such a way as to empty it of the male experience and re-inscribe it with her own poetic voice." Page 143; the Appendix presents the poem in Arabic].
Source: Journal of Arabic Literature , 31., 2 ( 2000):  Pages 121 - 143.
Year of Publication: 2000.

40. Record Number: 6502
Author(s): Krueger, Roberta L.
Contributor(s):
Title : Female Voices in Convents, Courts, and Households: The French Middle Ages [the author provides an overview of medieval French women authors that is nuanced and full of insights; she briefly discusses the writings of Radegund and Baudonivia, Dhuoda, Heloise, Clemence of Barking, Marie de France, trobaritz and female-voiced poems from Northern France, Marguerite d'Oingt, Marguerite Porete, and Christine de Pizan].
Source: A History of Women's Writing in France.   Edited by Sonya Stephens .   Cambridge University Press, 2000. Journal of Arabic Literature , 31., 2 ( 2000):  Pages 10 - 40.
Year of Publication: 2000.

41. Record Number: 4493
Author(s): Laiou, Angeliki.
Contributor(s):
Title : Introduction: Why Anna Komnene? [The author explores the reasons why Anna Komnena commands our attention].
Source: Anna Komnene and Her Times.   Edited by Thalia Gouma-Peterson .   Garland Publishing, 2000. Journal of Arabic Literature , 31., 2 ( 2000):  Pages 1 - 14.
Year of Publication: 2000.

42. Record Number: 4578
Author(s): Stevenson, Barbara.
Contributor(s):
Title : Re-Visioning the Widow Christine de Pizan [The author argues that critics have misread Christine by concentrating on her writings that deal with the autobiographical].
Source: Crossing the Bridge: Comparative Essays on Medieval European and Heian Japanese Women Writers.   Edited by Barbara Stevenson and Cynthia Ho .   Palgrave, 2000. Journal of Arabic Literature , 31., 2 ( 2000):  Pages 29 - 44.
Year of Publication: 2000.

43. Record Number: 4807
Author(s): Lloyd-Morgan, Ceridwen.
Contributor(s):
Title : The "Querelle des Femmes": A Continuing Tradition in Welsh Women's Literature [the author analyzes a poem by the woman author Gwerful Mechain in which she responds to a diatribe against women by the male poet Ieuan Dyfi; Gwenful Mechain cites women fromWelsh history, the Bible and the classical tradition all who had important achievements].
Source: Medieval Women: Texts and Contexts in Late Medieval Britain. Essays for Felicity Riddy.   Edited by Jocelyn Wogan-Browne, Rosalynn Voaden, Arlyn Diamond, Ann Hutchison, Carol M. Meale, and Lesley Johnson Medieval Women: Texts and Contexts .   Brepols, 2000. Journal of Arabic Literature , 31., 2 ( 2000):  Pages 101 - 114.
Year of Publication: 2000.

44. Record Number: 5393
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : The Fifteenth Century: (i) Humanism [The author gives a brief overview of women humanists including Battista da Montefeltro Malatesta, Isotta Nogarola, Cassandra Fedele, Laura Cereta, and Nicolosa Castellani Sanuti].
Source: A History of Women's Writing in Italy.   Edited by Letizia Panizza and Sharon Wood .   Cambridge University Press, 2000. Journal of Arabic Literature , 31., 2 ( 2000):  Pages 25 - 30.
Year of Publication: 2000.

45. Record Number: 4633
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Historicizing Canonicity: Tradition and the Invisible Talent of Mechthild von Magdeburg
Source: Women in German Yearbook , 15., ( 2000):  Pages 49 - 72.
Year of Publication: 2000.

46. Record Number: 4581
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Romantic Entreaty in "The Kagero Diary" and "The Letters of Abelard and Heloise" [The author compares the requests of two women to renew contact with their lovers; they are both constrained by social expectations but use rhetoric to be both loving and wronged].
Source: Crossing the Bridge: Comparative Essays on Medieval European and Heian Japanese Women Writers.   Edited by Barbara Stevenson and Cynthia Ho .   Palgrave, 2000. Women in German Yearbook , 15., ( 2000):  Pages 117 - 132.
Year of Publication: 2000.

47. Record Number: 4496
Author(s): Macrides, Ruth.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Pen and the Sword: Who Wrote the "Alexiad"? [the author examines the questions around Anna's authorship of the "Alexiad" and argues against the 1996 volume by James Howard-Johnston in which he maintained that Anna's husband, Nikephoros Bryennios, was the author because no woman would be able to write so knowledgeably about military campaigns].
Source: Full-text of the Alexiad in English (from the Medieval Sourcebook)
Year of Publication: 2000.

48. Record Number: 5394
Author(s): Bryce, Judith.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Fifteenth Century: (ii) Vernacular Poetry and Mystery Plays [The author briefly highlights the work of two authors, Lucrezia Tornabuoni de'Medici and Antonia Pulci, both of whom drew on sacred themes for their subject matter].
Source: A History of Women's Writing in Italy.   Edited by Letizia Panizza and Sharon Wood .   Cambridge University Press, 2000.  Pages 31 - 36.
Year of Publication: 2000.

49. Record Number: 4594
Author(s): Roman, Marco D.
Contributor(s):
Title : Reclaiming the Self Through Silence: "The Riverside Counselor's Stories" and the "Lais" of Marie de France [The author compares two stories in which the wronged women use silence to express their disapproval].
Source: Crossing the Bridge: Comparative Essays on Medieval European and Heian Japanese Women Writers.   Edited by Barbara Stevenson and Cynthia Ho .   Palgrave, 2000.  Pages 175 - 188.
Year of Publication: 2000.

50. Record Number: 5395
Author(s): Zarri, Gabriella
Contributor(s):
Title : Religious and Devotional Writing, 1400-1600 [The author briefly surveys women's relgious writings in Italy, arguing that they enjoyed success and were regarded favorably by the Church].
Source: A History of Women's Writing in Italy.   Edited by Letizia Panizza and Sharon Wood .   Cambridge University Press, 2000.  Pages 79 - 91.
Year of Publication: 2000.

51. Record Number: 4580
Author(s): Millay, S. Lea.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Voice of the Court Woman Poet [The author compares the poetry of Izumi Shikibu with that of the countess de Dia, finding in both the voice of the passionate woman].
Source: Crossing the Bridge: Comparative Essays on Medieval European and Heian Japanese Women Writers.   Edited by Barbara Stevenson and Cynthia Ho .   Palgrave, 2000.  Pages 91 - 116.
Year of Publication: 2000.

52. Record Number: 4494
Author(s): Magdalino, Paul.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Pen of the Aunt: Echoes of the Mid-Twelfth Century in the "Alexiad" [the author examines Anna's image of her father where his piety and concern for learning receive just as much emphasis as his military prowess; the author suggests that Anna in her writing frequently reacted to circumstances concerning the reigning emperor, Manuel, whom she disliked].
Source: Full-text of the Alexiad in English (from the Medieval Sourcebook)
Year of Publication: 2000.

53. Record Number: 5392
Author(s): Doglio, Maria Luisa.
Contributor(s):
Title : Letter Writing, 1350-1650 [The author gives a brief profile of a handful of women letter writers including St. Catherine of Siena and Alessandra Strozzi for the Middle Ages].
Source: A History of Women's Writing in Italy.   Edited by Letizia Panizza and Sharon Wood .   Cambridge University Press, 2000.  Pages 13 - 24.
Year of Publication: 2000.

54. Record Number: 5531
Author(s): De Courcelles, Dominique.
Contributor(s):
Title : Recherches sur les livres et les femmes en Catalogne aux XVe et XVIe siècles [the author briefly considers the literary debate about woman's nature, the roles which women played in the creation of literary works as authors, dedicatees, and commissioners, and the kinds of books found in women's libraries; in briefly considering women's literary circles, the author mentions the noble woman Isabel Suaris who promoted courtly literature and Abbess Isabel de Villena whose convent was a center of literary activity].
Source: Des Femmes et des Livres: France et Espagnes, XIVe-XVIIe siècle. Actes de la journée d'étude organisée par l'École nationale des chartes et l'École normale supérieure de Fontenay/Saint-Cloud (Paris, 30 avril 1998).   Edited by Dominique de Courcelles and Carmen Val Julián .   Études et Rencontres de l'École des Chartes, 4. École des Chartes, 1999.  Pages 95 - 114.
Year of Publication: 1999.

55. Record Number: 5572
Author(s): Green, Monica H.
Contributor(s):
Title : In Search of an "Authentic" Women's Medicine: The Strange Fates of Trota of Salerno and Hildegard of Bingen
Source: Dynamis: Acta Hispanica ad Medicinae Scientiarumque Historiam Illustrandam , 19., ( 1999):  Pages 25 - 54.
Year of Publication: 1999.

56. Record Number: 4884
Author(s): Ambrosio, Francis J.
Contributor(s):
Title : Feminist Self-Fashioning: Christine de Pizan and "The Treasure of the City of Ladies"
Source: European Journal of Women's Studies , 6., 1 (February 1999):  Pages 9 - 20.
Year of Publication: 1999.

57. Record Number: 4488
Author(s): Suydam, Mary.
Contributor(s):
Title : Ever in Unrest: Translating Hadewijch of Antwerp's "Mengeldichten" [The author uses feminist and post-structuralist ideas to examine the manuscript tradition and questions about Hadewijch as an historical person or as a group of Beguine authors; the author looks at two cases, Hadewijch's use of gendered pronouns and plur
Source: Women's Studies , 28., 2 (March 1999):  Pages 157 - 184.
Year of Publication: 1999.

58. Record Number: 4385
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Speaking "In Propria Persona": Authorizing the Subject as a Political Act in Late Medieval Feminine Spirituality [The author examines the writings of Marguerite Porete, Christine de Pizan, and Margery Kempe to see how they speak in their own voice; when they encounter resistance, they reappropriate it and feminize it].
Source: New Trends in Feminine Spirituality: The Holy Women of Liège and Their Impact.   Edited by Juliette Dor, Lesley Johnson, and Jocelyn Wogan-Browne Medieval Women: Texts and Contexts, 2.   Brepols, 1999. Women's Studies , 28., 2 (March 1999):  Pages 269 - 294.
Year of Publication: 1999.

59. Record Number: 4211
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Rolan, de ceu ke m'avez/ Parti dirai mon samblant: The Feminine Voice in the Old French "Jeu-Parti"
Source: Neophilologus , 83., 4 (October 1999):  Pages 497 - 516.
Year of Publication: 1999.

60. Record Number: 5722
Author(s): Bryce, Judith.
Contributor(s):
Title : Adjusting the Canon for Later Fifteenth-Century Florence: The Case of Antonia Pulci [Pulci wrote religious dramas in verse and was married to a humanist who was a client of Lorenzo de'Medici; the author speculates that Antonia may have had multiple lines of connection with the Medici family].
Source: The Renaissance Theatre: Texts, Performance, Design. Volume 1 English and Italian Theatre.   Edited by Christopher Cairns .   Papers Presented at a Society for Renaissance Studies Conference Held Sept. 12, 1997, Globe Theatre, London, England. Ashgate, 1999. Neophilologus , 83., 4 (October 1999):  Pages 133 - 145.
Year of Publication: 1999.

61. Record Number: 4709
Author(s): Bawcutt, Priscilla and Bridget Henisch
Contributor(s):
Title : Scots Abroad in the Fifteenth Century: The Princesses Margaret, Isabella, and Eleanor [The author traces the cultural activities of three daughters of James I; Margaret wrote verse, Isabella collected books, and Eleanor patronized literary translations].
Source: Women in Scotland c. 1100-c. 1750.   Edited by Elizabeth Ewan and Maureen M. Meikle .   Tuckwell Press, 1999.  Pages 45 - 55.
Year of Publication: 1999.

62. Record Number: 5370
Author(s): Ward, John.
Contributor(s):
Title : Women and Latin Rhetoric from Hrotsvit to Hildegard [The author briefly discusses the learning of Hrotsvitha of Gandersheim, the wife and daughters of Manegold of Lautenbach, the female poets mentioned by Baudri of Bourgeuil, Heloise, Abbess of Le Paraclet, and Hildegard].
Source: The Changing Tradition: Women in the History of Rhetoric.   Edited by Christine Mason Sutherland and Rebecca Sutcliffe .   Papers at the Conference of the International Society for the History of Rhetoric at the University of Saskatchewan in July, 1997. University of Calgary Press, 1999. Neophilologus , 83., 4 (October 1999):  Pages 121 - 132.
Year of Publication: 1999.

63. Record Number: 3774
Author(s): Wilson, Katharina M. and Glenda McLeod
Contributor(s):
Title : Sounding Trumpets, Chords of Light, and Little Knives: Medieval Women Writers [The authors provide an introductory overview, emphasizing the variety of ways in which women authors confronted questions of gender].
Source: Women in Medieval Western European Culture.   Edited by Linda E. Mitchell .   Garland Publishing, 1999.  Pages 331 - 344.
Year of Publication: 1999.

64. Record Number: 5249
Author(s): Maréchal, Chantal A..
Contributor(s):
Title : Marie de France Studies: Past, Present, and Future
Source: Envoi: A Review Journal of Medieval Literature , 8., 2 (Fall 1999):  Pages 105 - 125.
Year of Publication: 1999.

65. Record Number: 3364
Author(s): Lauxtermann, Marc.
Contributor(s):
Title : Three Biographical Notes [the first concerns Kassia, the hymnwriter and abbess; the author analyzes the story which places Kassia in a bride show for the young emperor Theophilos; the author argues that the story was intended to rehabilitate Kassia's reputation and banish all doubts about her lukewarm support of iconophilia orthodoxy].
Source: Byzantinische Zeitschrift , 91., 2 ( 1998):  Pages 391 - 405.
Year of Publication: 1998.

66. Record Number: 3992
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Poet: "Where the Living Majesty Utters Mysteries"
Source: Voice of the Living Light: Hildegard of Bingen and Her World.   Edited by Barbara Newman .   University of California Press, 1998. Envoi: A Review Journal of Medieval Literature , 8., 2 (Fall 1999):  Pages 176 - 192.
Year of Publication: 1998.

67. Record Number: 3570
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : The Many Faces in Dhuoda's Mirror: The "Liber Manualis" and a Century of Scholarship [explores the wide range of scholarly opinion in the last century concerning Dhuoda's writing skills, knowledge of politics, role as an educator, degree of agency, and importance as a spiritual guide].
Source: Magistra , 4., 2 (Winter 1998):  Pages 89 - 134.
Year of Publication: 1998.

68. Record Number: 3208
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Gender Subversion and LInguistic Castration in Fifteenth-Century English Translations of Christine de Pizan [translations excised her authority and her authorship; moreover they cut away her feminizing influence, removing or masculinizing all that she offered for female empowerment].
Source: Violence Against Women in Medieval Texts.   Edited by Anna Roberts .   University Press of Florida, 1998. Magistra , 4., 2 (Winter 1998):  Pages 161 - 194.
Year of Publication: 1998.

69. Record Number: 13512
Author(s): Dronke, Peter.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Allegorical World-Picture of Hildegard of Bingen: Revaluations and New Problems [The author explores the work of Hans Liebeschütz on Hildegard's use of allegory. He also considers the variety and difficulty of texts that Hildegard draws on or echoes in her works. The article concludes with the Latin text and English translation of an unpublished, allegorical letter from Hildegard, Berlin Lat. Qu. 674, ff. 39 va- 40 rb (B).].
Source: Hildegard of Bingen: The Context of Her Thought and Art.   Edited by Charles Burnett and Peter Dronke Warburg Institute Colloquia Series .   The Warburg Institute, 1998. Magistra , 4., 2 (Winter 1998):  Pages 1 - 16.
Year of Publication: 1998.

70. Record Number: 3613
Author(s): Jewers, Caroline.
Contributor(s):
Title : Reading and Righting: Issues of Value and Gender in Early Women Poets
Source: Exemplaria: A Journal of Theory in Medieval and Renaissance Studies , 10., 1 (Spring 1998):  Pages 97 - 121.
Year of Publication: 1998.

71. Record Number: 3401
Author(s): Mooney, Linne R.
Contributor(s):
Title : A Woman's Reply to Her Lover and Four Other New Courtly Love Lyrics in Cambridge, Trinity College MS.3.19 [texts of the five new poems are published in the appendix; the author suggests that the poem "A Woman's Reply to Her Lover" was composed by a woman who sent her love letter in verse to her royal lover].
Source: Medium Aevum , 67., 2 ( 1998):  Pages 235 - 256.
Year of Publication: 1998.

72. Record Number: 447
Author(s): Krustev, Georgi.
Contributor(s):
Title : A Poem by Maria Comnene Palaeologina from Manuscript No. 177 of the Ivan Dujcev Centre for Slavo-Byzantine Studies [suggests that the author of the poem was the illegitimate daughter of Michael VIII Palaeologus and was married to Abaka, the Mongol ruler of Persia; she may have found Codex No. 177 in Persia and donated it to the Monastery of the Chora in Constantinople; article includes the text of the poem].
Source: Byzantinoslavica , 58., 1 ( 1997):  Pages 71 - 77.
Year of Publication: 1997.

73. Record Number: 6667
Author(s): Kent, Francis W.
Contributor(s):
Title : Sainted Mother, Magnificent Son: Lucrezia Tornabuoni and Lorenzo de' Medici
Source: Italian History and Culture , 3., ( 1997):  Pages 3 - 34.
Year of Publication: 1997.

74. Record Number: 1865
Author(s): Billy, Dennis J., C.S.S.R.
Contributor(s):
Title : Redemption in Hildegard of Bingen's "Scivias"
Source: American Benedictine Review , 48., 4 (December 1997):  Pages 361 - 371.
Year of Publication: 1997.

75. Record Number: 1994
Author(s): Calabrese, Michael.
Contributor(s):
Title : Ovid and the Female Voice in the "De Amore" and the "Letters" of Abelard and Heloise
Source: Modern Philology (Full Text via JSTOR) 95, 1 (August 1997): 1-26. Link Info
Year of Publication: 1997.

76. Record Number: 1593
Author(s): McGuire, Thérèse.
Contributor(s):
Title : Two Twelfth-Century Women and their Books [Herrad, abbess of Hohenbourg, and Hildegard of Bingen].
Source: Women and the Book: Assessing the Visual Evidence.   Edited by Lesley Smith and Jane H.M. Taylor .   British Library and University of Toronto Press, 1997.  Pages 96 - 105.
Year of Publication: 1997.

77. Record Number: 2329
Author(s): Affeldt, Werner.
Contributor(s):
Title : L'expression féminine dans la poésie lyrique occitane [two linguistic and stylistic analyses and comparisons of discourse; the first case compares the "cansos" of four trobairitz (comtesse de Dia, Castelloza, Azalaïs, and Clara d'Anduza) with thise of four troubadours (Peire Vidal, Raimon de Miraval, Guilhem de Cabestanh, and Bertran de Born), while the second analysis looks at twenty-two "tensos" in which there are dialogues between male and female characters].
Source: Romance Philology , 51., 2 (November 1997):  Pages 107 - 193.
Year of Publication: 1997.

78. Record Number: 2667
Author(s): McNamer, Sarah.
Contributor(s):
Title : Dhuoda's "Handbook for William" and the Mother's Manual Tradition
Source: Listening to Their Voices: The Rhetorical Activities of Historical Women.   Edited by Molly Meijer Wertheimer .   University of South Carolina Press, 1997. Romance Philology , 51., 2 (November 1997):  Pages 177 - 198.
Year of Publication: 1997.

79. Record Number: 1589
Author(s): Smith, Lesley.
Contributor(s):
Title : Scriba, Femina: Medieval Depictions of Women Writing [appendix inventories the Western European manuscript illustrations that depict women writing].
Source: Women and the Book: Assessing the Visual Evidence.   Edited by Lesley Smith and Jane H.M. Taylor .   British Library and University of Toronto Press, 1997. Romance Philology , 51., 2 (November 1997):  Pages 21 - 44.
Year of Publication: 1997.

80. Record Number: 2666
Author(s): Richardson, Malcolm.
Contributor(s):
Title : Women, Commerce, and Rhetoric in Medieval England [analyzes women's business letters, primarily from the collections of the Paston, Stonor, and Plumpton families; many of these gentry women were left in charge of the family estates while their husbands stayed in London on business].
Source: Listening to Their Voices: The Rhetorical Activities of Historical Women.   Edited by Molly Meijer Wertheimer .   University of South Carolina Press, 1997. Romance Philology , 51., 2 (November 1997):  Pages 133 - 149.
Year of Publication: 1997.

81. Record Number: 1974
Author(s): Garay, Kathleen E.
Contributor(s):
Title : A Naked Intent Unto God: Ungendered Discourse in Some Late Medieval Mystical Texts [argues that female and male mystics wrote with much the same voice and that it was essentially a feminine mode of discourse; mystics whose works are discussed include Marguerite Porete, Julian of Norwich, Marguerite d'Oingt, Margery Kempe, Walter Hilton, Richard Rolle, and the author of "The Cloud of Unknowing"].
Source: Mystics Quarterly , 23., 2 (June 1997):  Pages 36 - 51.
Year of Publication: 1997.

82. Record Number: 1590
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Aesop's Cock and Marie's Hen: Gendered Authorship in Text and Image in Manuscripts of Marie de France's "Fables"
Source: Women and the Book: Assessing the Visual Evidence.   Edited by Lesley Smith and Jane H.M. Taylor .   British Library and University of Toronto Press, 1997. Mystics Quarterly , 23., 2 (June 1997):  Pages 45 - 56.
Year of Publication: 1997.

83. Record Number: 2360
Author(s): Lafont, Robert.
Contributor(s):
Title : La voix des dames [A psycho-historical reading of troubadour and trobairitz verses with an emphasis on the various roles that love played for male poets, both troubadours and jongleurs. The author also questions the biographies attributed to many of the trobairitz. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Revue des Langues Romanes , 101., 2 ( 1997):  Pages 185 - 205.
Year of Publication: 1997.

84. Record Number: 1205
Author(s): Suranyi, Anna.
Contributor(s):
Title : A Fifteenth-Century Woman's Pathway to Fame: The "Querelle de la Rose" and the Literary Career of Christine de Pizan
Source: Fifteenth Century Studies , 23., ( 1997):  Pages 204 - 221.
Year of Publication: 1997.

85. Record Number: 2985
Author(s): Parker, Holt.
Contributor(s):
Title : Latin and Greek Poetry by Five Renaissance Italian Women Humanists [Angela Nogarola, Isotta Nogarola, Costanza Varano, Alessandra Scala, and Fulvia Olympia Morata].
Source: Sex and Gender in Medieval and Renaissance Texts: The Latin Tradition.   Edited by Barbara K. Gold, Paul Allen Miller, and Charles Platter .   State University of New York Press, 1997. Fifteenth Century Studies , 23., ( 1997):  Pages 247 - 285.
Year of Publication: 1997.

86. Record Number: 2479
Author(s): Cowell, Andrew.
Contributor(s):
Title : Deadly Letters: "Deux Amanz," Marie's "Prologue" to the "Lais" and the dangerous Nature of the Gloss [argues that though Marie appropriates exegesis to lend her poems a greater authority, she is aware of her vulnerability as a female writer].
Source: Romanic Review , 88., 3 (May 1997):  Pages 337 - 356.
Year of Publication: 1997.

87. Record Number: 1976
Author(s): Obermeier, Anita and Rebecca Kennison
Contributor(s):
Title : The Privileging of "Visio" over "Vox" in the Mystical Experiences of Hildegard of Bingen and Joan of Arc
Source: Mystics Quarterly , 23., 3 (September 1997):  Pages 137 - 167.
Year of Publication: 1997.

88. Record Number: 2483
Author(s): Donovan, Josephine.
Contributor(s):
Title : Women and the Framed-Novelle: A Tradition of Their Own [argues that women used the prose fiction form to counter such misogynist ideas as women as commodities of exchange and thereby developed a feminist consciousness, an awareness of the unjust subordination of women; though primarily devoted to women authors in the early modern period, the author briefly discusses the "Livre de la cité des dames" and the "Evangiles des quenouilles"].
Source: Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society (Full Text via JSTOR) 22, 4 (Summer 1997): 947-980. Link Info
Year of Publication: 1997.

89. Record Number: 1868
Author(s): Freeman, Elizabeth.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Public and Private Functions of Heloise's Letters
Source: Journal of Medieval History , 23., 1 (March 1997):  Pages 15 - 28.
Year of Publication: 1997.

90. Record Number: 3489
Author(s): Amer, Sahar.
Contributor(s):
Title : Marie de France Rewrites Genesis: The Image of Woman in Marie de France's Fables
Source: Neophilologus , 81., 4 (October 1997):  Pages 489 - 499.
Year of Publication: 1997.

91. Record Number: 2392
Author(s): Davidson, Audrey Ekdahl.
Contributor(s):
Title : Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179): The "Ordo Virtutum" [includes Latin text, English translation, and modern performance scores for three pieces from the "Ordo Virtutum": "Flos campi, No. 38," "Gaudete, O socii, No. 80," and "In principio, No. 87"].
Source: Women Composers: Music Through the Ages.   Edited by Martha Furman Schleifer and Sylvia Glickman .   Volume 1 Composers Born Before 1599. G.K. Hall ; Prentice Hall International, 1996. Women in French Studies , 4., ( 1996):  Pages 51 - 60.
Year of Publication: 1996.

92. Record Number: 840
Author(s): Margolis, Nadia.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Cry of the Chameleon: Evolving Voices in the Epistles of Christine de Pizan
Source: Disputatio: An International Transdisciplinary Journal of the Late Middle Ages , 1., ( 1996):  Pages 37 - 70.
Year of Publication: 1996.

93. Record Number: 1216
Author(s): Kline, Barbara.
Contributor(s):
Title : Editing Women's Visions: Some Thoughts on the Transmission of Female Mystics' Texts [women mystics' writings were changed by late medieval English editors and translators who minimized and sometimes eliminated the female identity of the authors].
Source: Magistra , 2., 1 (Summer 1996):  Pages 3 - 23.
Year of Publication: 1996.

94. Record Number: 2381
Author(s): Rose-Lefmann, Deborah.
Contributor(s):
Title : As It Is Painted: Reflections of Image-Based Devotional Practices in the "Confessions" of Katherine Tucher [her journal records mystical visions of the intercession of Mary, the crucifixion, and Christ as the bridegroom; all are strongly influenced by popular religious paintings and prints].
Source: Studia Mystica New Series , 17., 2 ( 1996):  Pages 185 - 204.
Year of Publication: 1996.

95. Record Number: 2397
Author(s): Hospenthal, Christina.
Contributor(s):
Title : Suster Bertken (1426/27-1514) [includes text, English translation, and modern performance score for "Die werelt hielt mi in hair gewout"].
Source: Women Composers: Music Through the Ages.   Edited by Martha Furman Schleifer and Sylvia Glickman .   Volume 1 Composers Born Before 1599. G.K. Hall ; Prentice Hall International, 1996. Studia Mystica New Series , 17., 2 ( 1996):  Pages 84 - 87.
Year of Publication: 1996.

96. Record Number: 3294
Author(s): Schneider-Lastin, Wolfram Johannes.
Contributor(s):
Title : Christine de Pizan deutsch: Eine Übersetzung des "Livre des fais d'armes et de chevalerie" in einer unbekannten Handschrift des 15. Jahrhunderts [includes an edition of the prologue, pages 199-201].
Source: Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum und deutsche Literatur , 125., ( 1996):  Pages 187 - 201.
Year of Publication: 1996.

97. Record Number: 1781
Author(s): Laycox, Monty R.
Contributor(s):
Title : Subjectivity and Desire in "Le Chaitivel" [International Congress on Medieval Studies. Kalamazoo, May 1996].
Source: Le Cygne: Bulletin of the International Marie de France Society: Abstracts, Notes, and Queries , 2., (April 1996):  Pages 18
Year of Publication: 1996.

98. Record Number: 651
Author(s): Robertson, Duncan.
Contributor(s):
Title : Writing in the Textual Community: Clemence of Barking's Life of St. Catherine
Source: French Forum , 21., 1 (Jan. 1996):  Pages 5 - 28.
Year of Publication: 1996.

99. Record Number: 3647
Author(s): Nouvet, Claire.
Contributor(s):
Title : Writing (In) Fear [The author analyzes Christine's authorial personae, Cupid and Creintis(Fear); in writing her defense of women Christine must speak as a man].
Source: Gender and Text in the Later Middle Ages.   Edited by Jane Chance .   University Press of Florida, 1996. French Forum , 21., 1 (Jan. 1996):  Pages 279 - 305.
Year of Publication: 1996.

100. Record Number: 541
Author(s): Suydam, Mary A.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Politics of Authorship: Hadewijch of Antwerp and the "Mengeldichten" [argues that Hadewijch was the author of poems 17-29 in the "Mengeldichten" and that scholars' characterizations of the poems as speculative mysticism is based on gender assumptions].
Source: Mystics Quarterly , 22., 1 (March 1996):  Pages 2 - 20.
Year of Publication: 1996.

101. Record Number: 3644
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Autohagiography and Medieval Women's Spiritual Autobiography
Source: Gender and Text in the Later Middle Ages.   Edited by Jane Chance .   University Press of Florida, 1996. Mystics Quarterly , 22., 1 (March 1996):  Pages 216 - 236.
Year of Publication: 1996.

102. Record Number: 841
Author(s): Classen, Albrecht.
Contributor(s):
Title : Female Explorations of Literacy: Epistolary Challenges to the Literary Canon in the Late Middle Ages [style and content of women's letters found in Georg Steinhausen's edition, "Deutsche Privatbriefe des Mittelalters"].
Source: Disputatio: An International Transdisciplinary Journal of the Late Middle Ages , 1., ( 1996):  Pages 89 - 121.
Year of Publication: 1996.

103. Record Number: 2393
Author(s): Michaud, Francine.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Comtessa de Dia and the Trobairitz [includes Occitan text, English translation, and modern performance scores for "A chantar m'er de so qu'ieu no volria" and "Estat ai en greu cossirier" by the countess de Dia and "Loncx temps ai avut cossiriers" by Raimon de Miraval].
Source: Women Composers: Music Through the Ages.   Edited by Martha Furman Schleifer and Sylvia Glickman .   Volume 1 Composers Born Before 1599. G.K. Hall ; Prentice Hall International, 1996. Disputatio: An International Transdisciplinary Journal of the Late Middle Ages , 1., ( 1996):  Pages 61 - 68.
Year of Publication: 1996.

104. Record Number: 653
Author(s): Bossy, Michel- André and Nancy A. Jones
Contributor(s):
Title : Gender and Compilational Patterns in Troubadour Lyric: The Case of Manuscript "N" [poems of Guillaume IX, Duke of Aquitaine, frame those of the trobairitz Castelloza, Beatriz de Dia, and Azalais de Porcairagues.]
Source: French Forum , 21., 3 (Sept. 1996):  Pages 261 - 280.
Year of Publication: 1996.

105. Record Number: 667
Author(s): Clancy, Thomas Owen.
Contributor(s):
Title : Women Poets in Early Medieval Ireland: Stating the Case
Source: The Fragility of Her Sex?: Medieval Irishwomen in Their European Context.   Edited by Christine Meek and Katherine Simms .   Four Courts Press, 1996. Disputatio: An International Transdisciplinary Journal of the Late Middle Ages , 1., ( 1996):  Pages 43 - 72.
Year of Publication: 1996.

106. Record Number: 2389
Author(s): Touliatos, Diane.
Contributor(s):
Title : Kassia (ca. 810- between 843 and 867) [she wrote the words and music for many well-known hymns ; article includes Greek texts, English translations, and modern performance scores for "Edessa Rejoices" (Hymn to Saints Gurias, Samonas, and Abibus, Confessors and Martyrs at Vespers (November 15)
Source: Women Composers: Music Through the Ages.   Edited by Martha Furman Schleifer and Sylvia Glickman .   Volume 1 Composers Born Before 1599. G.K. Hall ; Prentice Hall International, 1996. Disputatio: An International Transdisciplinary Journal of the Late Middle Ages , 1., ( 1996):  Pages 1 - 24.
Year of Publication: 1996.

107. Record Number: 2390
Author(s): Pfau, Marianne Richert.
Contributor(s):
Title : Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1178): Biography
Source: Women Composers: Music Through the Ages.   Edited by Martha Furman Schleifer and Sylvia Glickman .   Volume 1 Composers Born Before 1599. G.K. Hall ; Prentice Hall International, 1996. Disputatio: An International Transdisciplinary Journal of the Late Middle Ages , 1., ( 1996):  Pages 25 - 29.
Year of Publication: 1996.

108. Record Number: 2391
Author(s): Pfau, Marianne Richert.
Contributor(s):
Title : Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179) : Responsories, Sequences, and Hymns in Hildegard's "Symphonia" [includes Latin text, English translation, and modern performance scores for "Vos flores rosarum", "O clarissima mater", "O lucidissima apostolorum turba", "Cum vox sanguinis", and "O ecclesia"].
Source: Women Composers: Music Through the Ages.   Edited by Martha Furman Schleifer and Sylvia Glickman .   Volume 1 Composers Born Before 1599. G.K. Hall ; Prentice Hall International, 1996. Disputatio: An International Transdisciplinary Journal of the Late Middle Ages , 1., ( 1996):  Pages 30 - 50.
Year of Publication: 1996.

109. Record Number: 615
Author(s): Claussen, M. A.
Contributor(s):
Title : Fathers of Power and Mothers of Authority: Dhuoda and the "Liber manualis" [Dhuoda uses scripture and St. Benedict's rule to teach her son Christian values].
Source: French Historical Studies (Full Text via JSTOR) 19, 3 (Spring 1996): 785-809. Link Info
Year of Publication: 1996.

110. Record Number: 1581
Author(s): Watson, Nicholas.
Contributor(s):
Title : Yf Wommen Be Double Naturelly: Remaking "Woman" in Julian of Norwich's "Revelation of Love" [Julian emphasizes fidelity, sensuality, as a human rather than a uniquely female condition, and God-as-Mother in response to antifeminist themes concerning woman's duplicity and destructiveness].
Source: Exemplaria: A Journal of Theory in Medieval and Renaissance Studies , 8., 1 (Spring 1996):  Pages 1 - 34.
Year of Publication: 1996.

111. Record Number: 2715
Author(s): McWebb, Christine.
Contributor(s):
Title : La Mythologie révisionniste chez Christine de Pizan [analysis of the mythological types (women warriors, sibyls, and virgins) that Christine in the "Cité des Dames" refashions from Boccaccio and in the "Ditié" creates out of her own "auctoritas"].
Source: Women in French Studies , 4., ( 1996):  Pages 27 - 39.
Year of Publication: 1996.

112. Record Number: 148
Author(s): Dufresne, Laura Rinaldi
Contributor(s):
Title : Christine de Pizan's "Treasure of the City of Ladies": A study of Dress and Social Hierarchy [in four illustrated manuscripts].
Source: Woman's Art Journal , 16., 2 ( 1995- 1996):  Pages 29 - 34. Available through JSTOR.
Year of Publication: 1995- 1996.

113. Record Number: 375
Author(s): Jambeck, Karen K.
Contributor(s):
Title : Reclaiming the Woman in the Book: Marie de France and the "Fables" [Marie de France replaces misogyny in Fables' sources with a more balanced view of women].
Source: Women, the Book and the Worldly: Selected Proceedings of the St. Hilda's Conference, 1993. Volume 2. [Volume 1: Women, the Book, and the Godly].   Edited by Lesley Smith and Jane H. M. Taylor .   D.S.Brewer, 1995. Sudhoffs Archiv , 79., 2 ( 1995):  Pages 119 - 137.
Year of Publication: 1995.

114. Record Number: 434
Author(s): Redfern, Jenny R.
Contributor(s):
Title : Christine de Pisan and "The Treasure of the City of Ladies": A Medieval Rhetorician and Her Rhetoric
Source: Reclaiming Rhetorica: Women in the Rhetorical Tradition.   Edited by Andrea A. Lunsford Pittsburgh series in composition, literacy, and culture .   University of Pittsburgh Press, 1995. Sudhoffs Archiv , 79., 2 ( 1995):  Pages 73 - 92.
Year of Publication: 1995.

115. Record Number: 1126
Author(s): Feiss, Hugh, O.S.B.
Contributor(s):
Title : A Poet Abbess from Notre-Dame de Saintes [verses on a mortuary roll are attributed to Sibille, fifth abbess of the monastery; in the poems she celebrates the deceased, Abbess Mathilda of Holy Trinity Monastery, Caen, and reflects on the inevitability of death].
Source: Magistra , 1., 1 (Summer 1995):  Pages 39 - 54.
Year of Publication: 1995.

116. Record Number: 1608
Author(s): Kottenhoff, Margarete.
Contributor(s):
Title : Die Miniaturen des "Livre de la Cité des Dames" als historiche Quellen
Source: Historisches Jahrbuch , 115., 2 ( 1995):  Pages 335 - 361.
Year of Publication: 1995.

117. Record Number: 1708
Author(s): Richards, Earl Jeffrey.
Contributor(s):
Title : In Search of a Feminist Patrology : Christine de Pizan and "Les Glorieux Dotteurs"
Source: Une femme de Lettres au Moyen Age: Études autour de Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Liliane Dulac and Bernard Ribémont .   Paradigme, 1995. Historisches Jahrbuch , 115., 2 ( 1995):  Pages 281 - 295. First published in Mystics Quarterly 21, 1 (March 1995): 3-17.
Year of Publication: 1995.

118. Record Number: 1709
Author(s): Margolis, Nadia.
Contributor(s):
Title : La progression polémique, spirituelle et personelle dans les écrits religieux de Christine de Pizan
Source: Une femme de Lettres au Moyen Age: Études autour de Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Liliane Dulac and Bernard Ribémont .   Paradigme, 1995. Historisches Jahrbuch , 115., 2 ( 1995):  Pages 297 - 316.
Year of Publication: 1995.

119. Record Number: 2308
Author(s): Mikkers, Edmund, O.C.S.O.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Spirituality of Cistercian Nuns: A Methodological Approach [overview of sources available including the "Usages," official records, biographies, spiritual writings by nuns, works by monks for women, and material remains].
Source: Hidden Springs: Cistercian Monastic Women. Book Two. Medieval Religious Women Volume Three.   Edited by John A. Nichols and Lillian Thomas Shank, O.S.C.O Cistercian Studies Series .   Cistercian Publications, 1995. Historisches Jahrbuch , 115., 2 ( 1995):  Pages 525 - 539.
Year of Publication: 1995.

120. Record Number: 1156
Author(s): Brand, Charles M.
Contributor(s):
Title : Anna Comnena: Woman and Historian
Source: Full-text of the Alexiad in English (from the Medieval Sourcebook)
Year of Publication: 1995.

121. Record Number: 1698
Author(s): Tarnowski, Andrea.
Contributor(s):
Title : Autobiograpy and Advice in the "Livre des Trois Vertus"
Source: Une femme de Lettres au Moyen Age: Études autour de Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Liliane Dulac and Bernard Ribémont .   Paradigme, 1995.  Pages 151 - 160.
Year of Publication: 1995.

122. Record Number: 1193
Author(s): Wallace, D. Patricia.
Contributor(s):
Title : Feminine Rhetoric and the Epistolary Tradition: The Boniface Correspondence [discusses letters written by Eangyth and Bugga and Abbess Ecgburg to Boniface and letters from the nun Berhtgyth to her brother Balthard].
Source: Women's Studies , 24., 3 ( 1995):  Pages 229 - 246. Special Issue: Issues in Medieval and Renaissance Scholarship
Year of Publication: 1995.

123. Record Number: 1650
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Introduction [discusses the social constraints and the sources of religious knowledge available to late medieval Castilian nuns who wrote devotional literature and accounts of their own visions].
Source: Writing Women in Late Medieval and Early Modern Spain: The Mothers of Saint Teresa of Avila. Ronald E. Surtz .   University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995. Women's Studies , 24., 3 ( 1995):  Pages 1 - 20.
Year of Publication: 1995.

124. Record Number: 1651
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : The New Judith: Teresa de Cartagena [analysis of the "Admiraçión operum dey," a defense of Teresa's first text, the "Arboleda de los enfermos"; the chapter focuses on three images in the text: bark/pith as a symbol for male and female and, as symbols of the author, the biblical Judith and the blind man on the road to Jericho].
Source: Writing Women in Late Medieval and Early Modern Spain: The Mothers of Saint Teresa of Avila. Ronald E. Surtz .   University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995. Women's Studies , 24., 3 ( 1995):  Pages 21 - 40.
Year of Publication: 1995.

125. Record Number: 1652
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Costanza de Castilla and the Gynaeceum of Compassion [Costanza, royal princess and prioress, wrote for a female audience and celebrated the feminine virtues of compassion and motherhood].
Source: Writing Women in Late Medieval and Early Modern Spain: The Mothers of Saint Teresa of Avila. Ronald E. Surtz .   University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995. Women's Studies , 24., 3 ( 1995):  Pages 41 - 67.
Year of Publication: 1995.

126. Record Number: 367
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Woman, Authority, and the Book in the Middle Ages [a female author's response to Richard de Fournival's "Bestiaire d' Amour"].
Source: Women, the Book and the Worldly: Selected Proceedings of the St. Hilda's Conference, 1993. Volume 2. [Volume 1: Women, the Book, and the Godly].   Edited by Lesley Smith and Jane H. M. Taylor .   D.S.Brewer, 1995. Women's Studies , 24., 3 ( 1995):  Pages 61 - 69.
Year of Publication: 1995.

127. Record Number: 385
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : For Hereby I Hope to Rouse Some to Piety: Books of Sisters From Convents and Sister- Houses Associated with the "Devotio Moderna" in the Low Countries [convent of Saint Mary and Saint Agnes at Diepenveen and the house of Master Geert].
Source: Women, the Book and the Godly: Selected Proceedings of the St. Hilda's Conference, 1993. Volume 1 [Volume 2: Women, the Book and the Worldly].   Edited by Lesley Smith and Jane H. M. Taylor .   D.S. Brewer, 1995. Women's Studies , 24., 3 ( 1995):  Pages 27 - 40.
Year of Publication: 1995.

128. Record Number: 2300
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Love and Knowledge in "Seven Manners of Loving"
Source: Hidden Springs: Cistercian Monastic Women. Book One. Medieval Religious Women Volume Three.   Edited by John A. Nichols and Lillian Thomas Shank, O.S.C.O Cistercian Studies Series .   Cistercian Publications, 1995. Women's Studies , 24., 3 ( 1995):  Pages 361 - 376.
Year of Publication: 1995.

129. Record Number: 2558
Author(s): Kempton, Daniel.
Contributor(s):
Title : Christine de Pizan's "Cité des Dames" and "Trésor de la Cité": Toward a Feminist Scriptural Practice
Source: Political Rhetoric, Power, and Renaissance Women.   Edited by Carole Levin and Patricia A. Sullivan .   State University of New York Press, 1995. Women's Studies , 24., 3 ( 1995):  Pages 14 - 37.
Year of Publication: 1995.

130. Record Number: 1116
Author(s): Richards, Earl Jeffrey.
Contributor(s):
Title : In Search of a Feminist Patrology: Christine de Pizan and "les glorieux dotteurs" of the Church
Source:   Edited by Liliane Dulac and Bernard Ribémont Mystics Quarterly , 21., 1 (March 1995):  Pages 3 - 17. Later published in Une femme de Lettres au Moyen Age: Études autour de Christine de Pizan. Edited by Liliane Dulac and Bernard Ribémont. Paradigme, 1995. Pages 281-295
Year of Publication: 1995.

131. Record Number: 1984
Author(s): Classen, Albrecht and Peter Dinzelbacher
Contributor(s):
Title : Weltliche Literatur von Frauen des Mittelalters. Bemerkungen zur jüngeren Forschung
Source: Mediaevistik , 8., ( 1995):  Pages 56 - 73.
Year of Publication: 1995.

132. Record Number: 1696
Author(s): Laennec, Christine Moneera.
Contributor(s):
Title : Prophétie, interprétation et écriture dans "L'Avision- Christine" [argues that Christine is concerned about her literary survival among future readers].
Source: Une femme de Lettres au Moyen Age: Études autour de Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Liliane Dulac and Bernard Ribémont .   Paradigme, 1995. Mystics Quarterly , 21., 1 (March 1995):  Pages 131 - 138.
Year of Publication: 1995.

133. Record Number: 442
Author(s): Wogan- Browne, Jocelyn.
Contributor(s):
Title : Rerouting the Dower: The Anglo- Norman Life of St. Audrey by Marie (of Chatteris?) [St. Audrey (Latin: Etheldreda) was a 7th century queen of Northumbria, a twice married virgin, and a monastic foundress].
Source: Power of the Weak: Studies on Medieval Women. A selection of a papers presented at the annual conference of the Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Toronto, Feb. 1990.   Edited by Jennifer Carpenter and Sally- Beth MacLean .   University of Illinois Press, 1995. Mystics Quarterly , 21., 1 (March 1995):  Pages 27 - 56.
Year of Publication: 1995.

134. Record Number: 1711
Author(s): Altmann, Barbara K.
Contributor(s):
Title : L'art de l'autoportrait littéraire dans les "Cent Ballades" de Christine de Pizan [discussion of Christine's contradictory self-portrayal as a widow who knows much about courtly love].
Source: Une femme de Lettres au Moyen Age: Études autour de Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Liliane Dulac and Bernard Ribémont .   Paradigme, 1995. Mystics Quarterly , 21., 1 (March 1995):  Pages 327 - 336.
Year of Publication: 1995.

135. Record Number: 439
Author(s): Brownlee, Kevin.
Contributor(s):
Title : Widowhood, Sexuality, and Gender in Christine de Pizan
Source: Romanic Review , 86., 2 (March 1995):  Pages 339 - 353. Special issue: The Production of Knowledge: Institutionalizing Sex, Gender, and Sexualiity in Medieval Discourse. Ed. by Kathryn Gravdal.
Year of Publication: 1995.

136. Record Number: 2523
Author(s): Brownlee, Kevin.
Contributor(s):
Title : Christine de Pizan's Canonical Authors: The Special Case of Boccaccio [analyzes Christine's rewriting in the "Cite des Dames" of three of Boccaccio's stories from the "Decameron" (the story of Bernabò da Genova, Ambruogiuolo, and Zinevra ; the story of Elisabetta, Lorenzo, and the "testo di bassilico"); Christine rereads Boccaccio's female exemplars in part to establish a new female authorial persona].
Source: Comparative Literature Studies , 32., 2 ( 1995):  Pages 244 - 261.
Year of Publication: 1995.

137. Record Number: 1122
Author(s): Tinsley, David F.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Spirituality of Suffering in the Revelations of Elsbeth von Oye
Source: Mystics Quarterly , 21., 4 (December 1995):  Pages 121 - 147.
Year of Publication: 1995.

138. Record Number: 1607
Author(s): Adamson, Melitta Weiss.
Contributor(s):
Title : Der deutsche Anhang zu Hildegard von Bingens "Liber simplicis medicinae" in Codex 6952 der Bibliothèque nationale in Paris (fol. 232v-238v) [includes an edition of the German text on pages 178, 180-191].
Source: Sudhoffs Archiv , 79., 2 ( 1995):  Pages 173 - 191.
Year of Publication: 1995.

139. Record Number: 1636
Author(s): Lachance, Paul.
Contributor(s):
Title : Battista da Varona (1458-1524): A Survey of Her Life and Writing as a Poor Clare Visionary
Source: Mystics Quarterly , 20., 1 (March 1994):  Pages 19 - 25.
Year of Publication: 1994.

140. Record Number: 3624
Author(s): Gouma-Peterson, Thalia.
Contributor(s):
Title : Engendered Category of Recognizable Life: Anna Comnena and her "Alexiad"
Source: Full-text of the Alexiad in English (from the Medieval Sourcebook)
Year of Publication: 1994.

141. Record Number: 1875
Author(s): Solterer, Helen.
Contributor(s):
Title : Seeing, Hearing, Tasting Women: Medieval Senses of Reading [comparison of the woman reader's five senses in the "Bestiaire d'Amour" and the response by an anonymous woman author].
Source: Comparative Literature (Full Text via JSTOR) 46, 2 (Spring 1994): 129-145. Link Info
Year of Publication: 1994.

142. Record Number: 6259
Author(s): Martelli, Mario.
Contributor(s):
Title : Lucrezia Tornabuoni [Lucrezia was married young into the Medici family when it was just consolidating its power; she wrote poetry in Italian, mostly on sacred themes; Lucrezia took part in the political and cultural developments of the Medici regime as a wife, mother, mother-in-law, and poet].
Source: Les Femmes écrivains en Italie au moyen âge et à la renaissance. Actes du colloque international Aix-en-Provence, 12, 13, 14 novembre 1992. .   Université de Provence, 1994.  Pages 51 - 86.
Year of Publication: 1994.

143. Record Number: 6261
Author(s): Bonnet, Marie-Rose.
Contributor(s):
Title : Un couple d'ecrivains: les "sacre rappresentazioni" de Bernando et Antonia Pulci [the author analyzes four plays by Antonia Pulci: "Santa Guglielma," "Santa Domitilla," "Figliuol Prodigo," and "Francesco," commenting on characterization, moral outlook, and dialogue; the author also briefly considers the kinds of influence Antonia's husband may have had on her literary career].
Source: Les Femmes écrivains en Italie au moyen âge et à la renaissance. Actes du colloque international Aix-en-Provence, 12, 13, 14 novembre 1992. .   Université de Provence, 1994.  Pages 177 - 196.
Year of Publication: 1994.

144. Record Number: 6260
Author(s): Ferroni, Giulio.
Contributor(s):
Title : L'Io e gli altri nelle "Lettere" di Caterina da Siena [Catherine of Siena can be described as the first woman author in the Italian vernacular, because we can hear her distinctive voice; however, in the transmission of her letters, most of them dictated to men, we have numerous problems of mediation to resol
Source: Les Femmes écrivains en Italie au moyen âge et à la renaissance. Actes du colloque international Aix-en-Provence, 12, 13, 14 novembre 1992. .   Université de Provence, 1994.  Pages 139 - 156.
Year of Publication: 1994.

145. Record Number: 2779
Author(s): Classen, Albrecht.
Contributor(s):
Title : Die leidende und unterdrückte Frau im Roman des 15. Jahrhunderts. Zur Verfasserschaft des frühneuhochdeutschen Romans "Pontus und Sidonia." Forschungsbericht und Interpretation
Source: Germanic Notes and Reviews , 25., 1 ( 1994):  Pages 9 - 24.
Year of Publication: 1994.

146. Record Number: 1958
Author(s): Christie, Niall.
Contributor(s):
Title : Troubadour or Trobairitz? Inconsistent Gender Markings in Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, Ms. fr. 844 [analysis of the Countess de Dia's "A chanta m'er de so qu'ieu no volria"].
Source: Manuscripta , 38., 3 (November 1994):  Pages 205 - 206.
Year of Publication: 1994.

147. Record Number: 3412
Author(s): Kinoshita, Sharon.
Contributor(s):
Title : Cherchez la Femme: Feminist Criticism and Marie de France's "Lai de Lanval" [The author argues that the lai demonstrates its feminism by rejecting feudal and chivalric values].
Source: Romance Notes , 34., 3 (Spring 1994):  Pages 263 - 273.
Year of Publication: 1994.

148. Record Number: 2579
Author(s): Donnelly, Colleen.
Contributor(s):
Title : Without Wordes: The Medieval Lady Dreams in "The Assembly of Ladies" [argues that the author of the "Assembly" was a woman and that she intended to show women's powerlessness in the public sector by writing a dream vision in which the female characters present complaints against their lovers].
Source: Journal of the Rocky Mountain Medieval and Renaissance Association , 15., ( 1994):  Pages 35 - 55.
Year of Publication: 1994.

149. Record Number: 1772
Author(s): Jewers, Caroline A.
Contributor(s):
Title : Loading the Canon : For and Against Feminist Readings of the Trobairitz
Source: Romance Quarterly , 41., 3 (Summer 1994):  Pages 134 - 147.
Year of Publication: 1994.

150. Record Number: 4226
Author(s): Bowers, John M.
Contributor(s):
Title : Ordeals, Privacy, and the "Lais" of Marie de France [The author argues for a transition from ordeals to more efficient means of investigating people's lives including torture and juries].
Source: Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies , 24., 1 (Winter 1994):  Pages 1 - 31.
Year of Publication: 1994.

151. Record Number: 3463
Author(s): Schibanoff, Susan.
Contributor(s):
Title : Botticelli's "Madonna del Magnificat": Constructing the Woman Writer in Early Humanist Italy
Source: PMLA: Publications of the Modern Language Association of America (Full Text via JSTOR) 109, 2 (March 1994): 190-206. Link Info
Year of Publication: 1994.

152. Record Number: 11421
Author(s): Laennec, Christine Moneera.
Contributor(s):
Title : Unladylike Polemics: Christine de Pizan's Strategies of Attack and Defense [The author discusses Pizan's methods of argumentation. By claiming female weakness and the persona of a virgin martyr, she put her attackers at a decided disadvantage. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature (Full Text via JSTOR) 12, 1 (Spring 1993): 47-59. Link Info
Year of Publication: 1993.

153. Record Number: 8468
Author(s): Carrai, Stefano and Giorgio Inglese
Contributor(s):
Title : Epigrammi inediti del Poliziano e del Naldi [A manuscript in Poppi contains an exchange of epigrams between Angelo Poliziano, a leading humanist, and the coutesan Ginevra. He accused her of greed, and she accused him of sodomy and pedophilia. Seven of their Latin epigrams are appended to the article. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: Rinascimento , 33., ( 1993):  Pages 111 - 123.
Year of Publication: 1993.

154. Record Number: 7186
Author(s): Higgins, Paula.
Contributor(s):
Title : The "Other Minervas": Creative Women at the Court of Margaret of Scotland [The author examines the activities of the princess, Margaret of Scotland, and her ladies-in-waiting, both as authors of poetry and creators of music. She critiques recent scholarship because it dismisses women's artistic contributions and grants credence only to the well-documented like Christine de Pizan in the "discourse of the exceptional woman." Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Rediscovering the Muses: Women's Musical Traditions.   Edited by Kimberly Marshall .   Northeastern University Press, 1993. Rinascimento , 33., ( 1993):  Pages 169 - 185.
Year of Publication: 1993.

155. Record Number: 8775
Author(s): Coolidge, Sharon.
Contributor(s):
Title : Eliduc and the Iconography of Love [The author argues that, in "Eliduc," Marie de France describes an ideal love which unites the earthly and the divine, and which overcomes personal obstacles in order to enact a kind of social reform. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: Mediaeval Studies , 54., ( 1992):  Pages 274 - 285.
Year of Publication: 1992.

156. Record Number: 9067
Author(s): Olson, Robert.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Green Man in Hildegard of Bingen [In his analysis of the "Liber Divinorum Operum" ("Book of Divine Works"), the author argues that Hildegard's concept of "viriditas" plays a central role in her cosmology. Roughly equivalent to "greenness," the term refers to the creative force behind everything in the world; it sustains and reflects the salvific work that both men and women perform. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Studia Mystica New Series , 15., 4 (Winter 1992):  Pages 3 - 18.
Year of Publication: 1992.

157. Record Number: 9458
Author(s): Bartlett, Anne Clark.
Contributor(s):
Title : “Delicious Matyr”: Feminine Courtesy in Middle English Devotional Literature for Women [The author explores how devotional texts addressed to women readers often used the discourses of courtly literature and romances, while at the same time critiquing these literary conventions. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Essays in Medieval Studies , 9., ( 1992):  Pages 9 - 18.
Year of Publication: 1992.

158. Record Number: 9494
Author(s): Nye, Andrea.
Contributor(s):
Title : A woman's thought or a man's discipline? The letters of Abelard andHeloise [The author recounts the debates between Abelard and Heloise in their love letters, suggesting that Heloise offers an alternative to Abelard’s philosophical methods. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy , 7., 3 ( 1992):  Pages 1 - 22.
Year of Publication: 1992.

159. Record Number: 10006
Author(s): Tarvers, Josephine Koster.
Contributor(s):
Title : “Thys ys my mystrys boke”: English Women and Readers and Writers in Late Medieval England [Women actively participated in manuscript culture and literary production in fourteenth and fifteenth century England. Manuscript evidence shows they could be owners of books as well as translators and scribes. The author provides many examples of manuscripts that were written by and for (and circulated among) women. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: The Uses of manuscripts in literary studies: essays in memory of Judson Boyce Allen.   Edited by Charlotte Cook Morse, Penelope Reed Doob, and Marjorie Curry Woods Studies in medieval culture .   Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 1992. Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy , 7., 3 ( 1992):  Pages 305 - 327.
Year of Publication: 1992.

160. Record Number: 10285
Author(s): Lavalva, Rosamaria.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Language of Vision in Angela da Foligno's "Liber de vera fidelium experientia" [The article explores the way Angela da Foligno describes the divine process by which she records her visions. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Stanford Italian Review , 11., 40180 ( 1992):  Pages 103 - 122.
Year of Publication: 1992.

161. Record Number: 10367
Author(s): Dulac, Liliane.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Representation and Functions of Feminine Speech in Christine de Pizan’s "Livre des Trois Vertus" [In this didactic text directed to female readers, Christine examines the problematic role of feminine speech in relation to male discourse. Through an analysis of Christine’s allegorical female personifications of Virtues, the author explores the social importance and resources of feminine speech in literary texts. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Reinterpreting Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Earl Jeffrey Richards, Joan Williamson, Nadia Margolis, and Christine Reno .   University of Georgia Press, 1992. Stanford Italian Review , 11., 40180 ( 1992):  Pages 13 - 22.
Year of Publication: 1992.

162. Record Number: 10368
Author(s): Fenster, Thelma.
Contributor(s):
Title : Did Christine Have a Sense of Humor? The Evidence of the "Epistre au dieu d’Amours" [One of the resources of feminine speech that Christine uses in her works is humor, which can be an instrument of moral critique. Christine uses the rhetorical strategies of humor, irony, and satire in her poetry to rebuke the misogyny of male authors, most powerfully in her attack of Jean de Meun’s “Roman de la Rose.” Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Reinterpreting Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Earl Jeffrey Richards, Joan Williamson, Nadia Margolis, and Christine Reno .   University of Georgia Press, 1992. Stanford Italian Review , 11., 40180 ( 1992):  Pages 23 - 36.
Year of Publication: 1992.

163. Record Number: 10369
Author(s): McLeod, Glenda.
Contributor(s):
Title : Poetics and Antimisogynist Polemics in Christine de Pizan’s "Le Livre de la Cite des Dames" [The author explores the central role of morality and ethics in Christine’s work. The “Livre” is a work of generic and allegorical sophistication. In this text, Christine adapts some of the structures and rhetorical conventions of scholasticism in order to attack literary misogyny. The author compares the literary strategies used in Christine’s work to the allegorical procedures used by scholastic thinkers. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Reinterpreting Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Earl Jeffrey Richards, Joan Williamson, Nadia Margolis, and Christine Reno .   University of Georgia Press, 1992. Stanford Italian Review , 11., 40180 ( 1992):  Pages 37 - 47.
Year of Publication: 1992.

164. Record Number: 10371
Author(s): Walters, Lori.
Contributor(s):
Title : Fathers and Daughters: Christine de Pizan as Reader of the Male Tradition of "Clergie" in the "Dit de la Rose" [The author investigates the literary relationship between Christine and the male poet Eustache Deschamps. Christine refers to the poet as her master, and her subsequent career is an attempt to beat Deschamps in a contest for poetic legitimacy. Christine may have modeled this literary relationship on the one between Dante and Virgil, but Christine ultimately overcomes the anxiety of influence that characterizes Deschamps’ relationship to his own poetic predecessor Guillaume Machaut. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Reinterpreting Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Earl Jeffrey Richards, Joan Williamson, Nadia Margolis, and Christine Reno .   University of Georgia Press, 1992. Stanford Italian Review , 11., 40180 ( 1992):  Pages 63 - 76.
Year of Publication: 1992.

165. Record Number: 10372
Author(s): Hicks, Eric.
Contributor(s):
Title : A Mirror for Misogynists: John of Salisbury’s “Policraticus” (8.11) in the Translation of Denis Foulechat (1372) [The author presents a translation and transcription of a misogynist text written in French by Foulechat, itself a translation of a Latin text by John of Salisbury. The writings of John of Salisbury influenced Christine’s politics, as her works often seek to address misogyny in the literary tradition. The author argues that it is plausible that Christine read Foulechat’s translation of John’s work. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Reinterpreting Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Earl Jeffrey Richards, Joan Williamson, Nadia Margolis, and Christine Reno .   University of Georgia Press, 1992. Stanford Italian Review , 11., 40180 ( 1992):  Pages 77 - 107.
Year of Publication: 1992.

166. Record Number: 10373
Author(s): Margolis, Nadia.
Contributor(s):
Title : Elegant Closures: The Use of the Diminutive in Christine de Pizan and Jean de Meun [Christine wasn’t overcome by any anxiety of influence in regard to her poetic predecessor Jean de Meun; instead, she was independent in her use of rhetoric. Her use of diminutives, in particular, is a powerful tool for expressing her feminist concerns. While male authors tend to use the diminutive form of words in order to condescend, Christine uses these word forms in more subtle and varied ways. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Reinterpreting Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Earl Jeffrey Richards, Joan Williamson, Nadia Margolis, and Christine Reno .   University of Georgia Press, 1992. Stanford Italian Review , 11., 40180 ( 1992):  Pages 111 - 123.
Year of Publication: 1992.

167. Record Number: 10374
Author(s): Beer, Jeanette M. A.
Contributor(s):
Title : Stylistic Conventions in "Le Livre de la mutacion de Fortune" [In her allegorical poem, Christine uses rhetorical devices (particularly “dilatio,” “amplificatio,” and “abbreviatio”) in order to construct her relationship with her readers. While she does use some tropes that male poets use, Christine disassociates herself from particular tropes used in Jean de Meun’s “Roman de la Rose” and Guillaume Machaut’s “Livre de Voir-Dit.” The author also argues that Christine is unable to integrate the question of Jewish history into the larger historical vision of the work. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Reinterpreting Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Earl Jeffrey Richards, Joan Williamson, Nadia Margolis, and Christine Reno .   University of Georgia Press, 1992. Stanford Italian Review , 11., 40180 ( 1992):  Pages 124 - 136.
Year of Publication: 1992.

168. Record Number: 10375
Author(s): Altmann, Barbara K.
Contributor(s):
Title : Reopening the Case: Machaut’s “Jugement” Poems as a Source in Christine de Pizan [The author addresses the relationship between Christine’s debate poems and Guillaume Machaut’s “Judgment” poems (also called “dits”). Christine was highly indebted to a French lyric tradition which includes Machaut, but was skeptical of the misogynist content in his writings; thus, her poems transform this literary tradition through female speakers or viewpoints. For instance, Christine’s depiction of male beauty in the “Dit de Poissy” ironically reworks courtly conventions of female beauty. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Reinterpreting Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Earl Jeffrey Richards, Joan Williamson, Nadia Margolis, and Christine Reno .   University of Georgia Press, 1992. Stanford Italian Review , 11., 40180 ( 1992):  Pages 137 - 156.
Year of Publication: 1992.

169. Record Number: 10376
Author(s): Curnow, Maureen Cheney.
Contributor(s):
Title : La Pioche d’Inquisition: Legal-Judicial Content and Style in Christine de Pizan’s "Livre de la Cite des Dames" [During her early years as a writer, Christine had extensive experience with royal law courts and legal proceedings both in her own life and in connection with her father and her husband. Christine’s knowledge and application of legal terminology and style in her work reflects the close connection between law and rhetoric in medieval education. Drawing upon her own education, Christine uses legal vocabulary in her poetry as part of a larger argument in favor of female participation in the law. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Reinterpreting Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Earl Jeffrey Richards, Joan Williamson, Nadia Margolis, and Christine Reno .   University of Georgia Press, 1992. Stanford Italian Review , 11., 40180 ( 1992):  Pages 157 - 172.
Year of Publication: 1992.

170. Record Number: 10377
Author(s): Kelly, Allison.
Contributor(s):
Title : Christine de Pizan and Antoine de la Sale: The Dangers of Love in Theory and Fiction [Christine’s work greatly influenced later medieval French poets like Antoine de la Sale. Although Antoine never directly cites Christine, her influence is pervasive throughout his works about courtly love. Her influence is especially pronounced in the similarities between the fictional characters of Dido (from Christine’s “Livre de la cite des Dames”) and Belles Cousines (from Antoine’s “Jehan de Saintre”). Antoine’s complex irony allows him to both affirm Christine’s feminist viewpoints as well as express misogynist opinions; however, he fails to see any humor in Christine’s own work. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Reinterpreting Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Earl Jeffrey Richards, Joan Williamson, Nadia Margolis, and Christine Reno .   University of Georgia Press, 1992. Stanford Italian Review , 11., 40180 ( 1992):  Pages 173 - 186.
Year of Publication: 1992.

171. Record Number: 10379
Author(s): Reno, Christine.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Preface to the “Avision-Christine” in ex-Phillips 128 [Reno provides a transcription and translation of the Preface to the “Avision-Christine” as it appears in a previously unpublished manuscript. The preface explains to the reader how to read Christine de Pizan’s allegorical poem. Reno explains Christine’s ties to the allegorical exegetical tradition and to Boccaccio’s poetry, concluding that Christine blended Italian humanism and French courtly traditions in her writings. She concludes that Christine must have read some of Boccaccio’s work in the original Latin. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Reinterpreting Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Earl Jeffrey Richards, Joan Williamson, Nadia Margolis, and Christine Reno .   University of Georgia Press, 1992. Stanford Italian Review , 11., 40180 ( 1992):  Pages 207 - 227.
Year of Publication: 1992.

172. Record Number: 10380
Author(s): Blanchard, Joel.
Contributor(s):
Title : Compilation and Legitimation in the Fifteenth Century: "Le Livre de la Cite des Dames" [The author traces the complicated rhetorical processes involved in Christine’s adaptation of her literary sources; compilation is the central organizational principle of the work. The author suggests that we evaluate Christine’s work on the basis of its aesthetic value, and not base our judgments on an analysis of the work’s content. The author concludes by describing how the illustrations in a manuscript of “Le Livre” have an autobiographical function. In addition to depicting Christine herself, the illustrations use images of books and allegorical figures to legitimize Christine as an author. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Reinterpreting Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Earl Jeffrey Richards, Joan Williamson, Nadia Margolis, and Christine Reno .   University of Georgia Press, 1992. Stanford Italian Review , 11., 40180 ( 1992):  Pages 228 - 249.
Year of Publication: 1992.

173. Record Number: 10381
Author(s): Richards, Earl Jeffrey.
Contributor(s):
Title : Christine de Pizan, the Conventions of Courtly Diction, and Italian Humanism [Christine dramatically transformed French poetic conventions through the influence of Italian humanist literary culture. The author argues that Christine prefers the models of eloquence offered by Italian poets like Dante and Petrarch over those offered by the French tradition (including the “Roman de la Rose” and Guillaume Machaut’s poetry). Christine’s writings offer a revolutionary political vision, espousing a unifying ideology of French nationalism over class division. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Reinterpreting Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Earl Jeffrey Richards, Joan Williamson, Nadia Margolis, and Christine Reno .   University of Georgia Press, 1992. Stanford Italian Review , 11., 40180 ( 1992):  Pages 250 - 271.
Year of Publication: 1992.

174. Record Number: 10382
Author(s): Stablein-Harris, Patricia.
Contributor(s):
Title : Orleans, the Epic Tradition, and the Sacred Texts of Christine de Pizan [Christine’s experience with politics at the French court motivated her to portray the immorality of her life and times through epic texts. In her “Dit de la Rose,” she rewrites Jean de Meun’s “Roman de la Rose” but she uses key words for her own purposes. The religious sentiment and moral tone in Christine’s “Dit” directly respond to the blasphemous and secular uses of language in Jean’s original poem. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Reinterpreting Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Earl Jeffrey Richards, Joan Williamson, Nadia Margolis, and Christine Reno .   University of Georgia Press, 1992. Stanford Italian Review , 11., 40180 ( 1992):  Pages 272 - 284.
Year of Publication: 1992.

175. Record Number: 10383
Author(s): Kennedy, Angus J.
Contributor(s):
Title : A Selective Bibliography of Christine de Pizan Scholarship, circa 1980-1987 [Includes five categories: previous bibliographies; manuscripts; editions, translations, and anthologies; critical studies; and language and language-related studies. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Reinterpreting Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Earl Jeffrey Richards, Joan Williamson, Nadia Margolis, and Christine Reno .   University of Georgia Press, 1992. Stanford Italian Review , 11., 40180 ( 1992):  Pages 285 - 298.
Year of Publication: 1992.

176. Record Number: 10790
Author(s): Runte, Hans R.
Contributor(s):
Title : Marie de France dans ses "Fables" [The author discusses Marie's authorial presence in her "Fables," and considers bother her technique of self-naming and her distinctive use on incipits and epimythia (morals of the story). Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: In Quest of Marie de France: A Twelfth-Century Poet.   Edited by Chantal A. Marechal .   Edwin Mellen Press, 1992. Stanford Italian Review , 11., 40180 ( 1992):  Pages 28 - 44.
Year of Publication: 1992.

177. Record Number: 10791
Author(s): Speigel, Harriet.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Woman's Voice in the “Fables” of Marie de France [The author argues that, far from mere translations of traditional material, Marie's “Fables” convey a unique female voice. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: In Quest of Marie de France: A Twelfth-Century Poet.   Edited by Chantal A. Marechal .   Edwin Mellen Press, 1992. Stanford Italian Review , 11., 40180 ( 1992):  Pages 45 - 58.
Year of Publication: 1992.

178. Record Number: 10793
Author(s): Kelly, Douglas.
Contributor(s):
Title : “Diversement Comencier” in the “Lais” of Marie de France [The article surveys the different “Lais” and considers the similarities and differences in their narratives, particularly concerning the theme of the "love triangle." Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: In Quest of Marie de France: A Twelfth-Century Poet.   Edited by Chantal A. Marechal .   Edwin Mellen Press, 1992. Stanford Italian Review , 11., 40180 ( 1992):  Pages 107 - 122.
Year of Publication: 1992.

179. Record Number: 10801
Author(s): Rosenn, Eva.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Sexual and Textual Politics of Marie's Poetics [The author argues that Marie's relationship with textual authority comprises a specifically feminine discourse, and allows her to create a fantasy realm in which women can confront and even change the conditions of their lives. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: In Quest of Marie de France: A Twelfth-Century Poet.   Edited by Chantal A. Marechal .   Edwin Mellen Press, 1992. Stanford Italian Review , 11., 40180 ( 1992):  Pages 225 - 242.
Year of Publication: 1992.

180. Record Number: 10804
Author(s): Stein, Robert M.
Contributor(s):
Title : Desire, Social Reproduction, and Marie's "Guigemar" [The article suggests that, through the network of symbols in “Guigemar,” Marie reveals her own contradictory situation as a woman author in a masculine, knightly world. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: In Quest of Marie de France: A Twelfth-Century Poet.   Edited by Chantal A. Marechal .   Edwin Mellen Press, 1992. Stanford Italian Review , 11., 40180 ( 1992):  Pages 280 - 294.
Year of Publication: 1992.

181. Record Number: 10244
Author(s): Szell, Timea K.
Contributor(s):
Title : From Woe to Weal and Weal to Woe: Notes on the Structure of "The Book of Margery Kempe" [The complicated narrative structure of Margery’s “Book” reflects the author’s attempt to reconcile two contradictory psychological impulses: one is the need to gain social acceptance and legitimacy; the other is the desire to be publicly shunned and perceived as outside of societal norms. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Margery Kempe: A Book of Essays.   Edited by Sandra J. McEntire .   Garland Publishing, 1992.  Pages 73 - 91.
Year of Publication: 1992.

182. Record Number: 11741
Author(s): Paulsell, Stephanie.
Contributor(s):
Title : Writing and Mystical Experience in Marguerite d'Oingt and Virginia Woolf [The author argues that both Woolf and Marguerite felt impelled to write because of transcendent experiences. They found writing to be both a healing process and an opportunity to come to a greater understanding of the insights they had received. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Comparative Literature (Full Text via JSTOR) 44, 3 (Summer 1992): 249-267. Link Info
Year of Publication: 1992.

183. Record Number: 7246
Author(s): Gertz, SunHee Kim.
Contributor(s):
Title : Transferral, Transformation, and the Act of Reading in Marie deFrance's "Bisclavret" [The author observes that in Marie's "lai" "Bisclavret," the characters who are the most careful readers are also the most convincing storytellers. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Romance Quarterly , 39., 4 (November 1992):  Pages 399 - 410.
Year of Publication: 1992.

184. Record Number: 9498
Author(s): Johnson, Lynn Staley.
Contributor(s):
Title : Margery Kempe: social critic [The article considers Kempe as a social commentator, and discusses the way she uses her particular vision of social reality not only to support her spiritual biography, but to critique the community. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies , 22., 2 (Spring 1992):  Pages 159 - 184.
Year of Publication: 1992.

185. Record Number: 8703
Author(s): Gravdal, Kathryn.
Contributor(s):
Title : Metaphor, Metonymy, and the Medieval Women Trobairitz [The author argues that the metaphorical expressions of the troubadour’s love and suffering before an all-powerful "domna" figure him as a woman. The female trobairitz counter this self-serving construction of gender by creating songs in which women have the possibility of self-expression and agency. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Romanic Review , 83., 4 ( 1992):  Pages 411 - 426.
Year of Publication: 1992.

186. Record Number: 8702
Author(s): Gingrass-Conley, Katharine.
Contributor(s):
Title : La "Venue" à l’écriture de la dame dans "Le Chaitivel" [The author argues that Marie made "Chaitivel" a complex response to courtly love with three readings of the unnamed lady. In the first the lady submits to the surviving suitor knight. In the second reading the lady provides an ironic commentary on courtly love. In the third the lady realizes her desire is to tell the story of her experiences. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Romanic Review , 83., 2 ( 1992):  Pages 149 - 160.
Year of Publication: 1992.

187. Record Number: 9497
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Authority, authenticity, and the repression of Heloise [The writer argues for the authenticity of Heloise’s letters, and suggests that the same questions about authority and repression that trouble Heloise scholars today plagued Heloise herself. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies , 22., 2 (Spring 1992):  Pages 121 - 157. Reprinted in From Virile Woman to WomanChrist: Studies in Medieval Religion and Literature. By Barbara Newman. Middle Ages Series. University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995. Pages 46-75
Year of Publication: 1992.

188. Record Number: 7419
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Isabel González of the Cancionero de Baena and Other Lost Voices [The author suggests that we might attribute the lack of identifiable women writers of Castilian poetry to a culturally mandated desire for female anonymity. She further suggests that these women may have made a greater contribution to medieval Spanish literary culture than scholars have previously allowed, but we may never be able to concretely identify their voices. Three poems refer to Isabel González as a gifted poet and formidable wit. None of her poems survive though the rubrics of other poems identify her as the mistress of Juan Alfonso de Guzmán, the count of Niebla. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Corónica , 21., 1 (Fall 1992):  Pages 59 - 82.
Year of Publication: 1992.

189. Record Number: 9622
Author(s): Carrai, Stefano.
Contributor(s):
Title : Il dittico della Compiuta Donzella [A Florentine "cansoniere" (songbook) assigns two poems to a woman, referred to as the "Compiuta Donzella" (the Accomplished Maiden). The poems express her desire to abandon a proposed marriage for the religious life. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Medioevo Romanzo , 17., ( 1992):  Pages 207 - 213.
Year of Publication: 1992.

190. Record Number: 11116
Author(s): Dulac, Liliane.
Contributor(s):
Title : Authority in the Prose Treatises of Christine de Pizan: The Writer's Discourse and the Prince's Word
Source: Politics, Gender, and Genre: The Political Thought of Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Margaret Brabant .   Westview Press, 1992. Medioevo Romanzo , 17., ( 1992):  Pages 129 - 140.
Year of Publication: 1992.

191. Record Number: 7244
Author(s): Nelson, Jan A.
Contributor(s):
Title : Abbreviated Style and les "Lais" de Marie de France [The author argues that Marie de France's rhetorical use of "abreviatio" (a term that emerged in twelfth-century theoretical treatises on rhetoric) is the most significant aspect of her compositional style, and shows her to be a sophisticated writer. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Romance Quarterly , 39., 2 (May 1992):  Pages 131 - 143.
Year of Publication: 1992.

192. Record Number: 10248
Author(s): Hopenwasser, Nanda.
Contributor(s):
Title : Margery Kempe, St. Bridget, and Marguerite d’Oingt: The Visionary Writer as Shaman [Visionary writers of medieval Europe performed many of the same functions that modern shamans do in communities outside the Western tradition. As creative artists, they serve as bridges between the eternal and temporal worlds, transferring information and spiritual healing from a higher power to human society. They are apart from society yet also derive power from their marginal position. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Margery Kempe: A Book of Essays.   Edited by Sandra J. McEntire .   Garland Publishing, 1992. Romance Quarterly , 39., 2 (May 1992):  Pages 165 - 187.
Year of Publication: 1992.

193. Record Number: 10250
Author(s): Holloway, Julia Bolton.
Contributor(s):
Title : Bride, Margery, Julian, and Alice: Bridget of Sweden’s Textual Community in Medieval England [Kempe models her devotional practices on Saint Bridget of Sweden, replicating the saint’s writings, life, and pilgrimages through her own book and travels. In her pilgrimages, Kempe visited the same sites Bridget did in her lifetime. Pilgrimage was available to both men and women, and writing a text enabled women to gain some access to power by narrating their travels. The author traces the lives, texts, and travels of historical figures like Saint Bridget of Sweden and Julian of Norwich, as well as Dame Alison (Chaucer’s fictional Wife of Bath). Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Margery Kempe: A Book of Essays.   Edited by Sandra J. McEntire .   Garland Publishing, 1992. Romance Quarterly , 39., 2 (May 1992):  Pages 203 - 222.
Year of Publication: 1992.

194. Record Number: 10777
Author(s): Smith, Robin.
Contributor(s):
Title : Glimpses of Some Anglo-Saxon Women [The author briefly profiles three Anglo-Saxon women: Abbess Hilda, the nun Hygeburg (author of a pilgrimage account), and Aethelflaed, ruler of the Mercians. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: A Wyf Ther Was: Essays in Honour of Paule Mertens-Fonck.   Edited by Juliette Dor .   English Department, University of Liège, 1992. Romance Quarterly , 39., 2 (May 1992):  Pages 256 - 263.
Year of Publication: 1992.

195. Record Number: 10246
Author(s): Bremner, Eluned.
Contributor(s):
Title : Margery Kempe and the Critics: Disempowerment and Deconstruction [The author compares selected twentieth-century analyses of Kempe’s “Book” (written by literary critics) to episodes in the “Book” itself, in which Margery faces criticism from various figures of authority. Both the modern critics outside the text and the clerical figures within the “Book” reinforce patriarchal structures in response to Kempe, who challenges female suppression and speaks to establish her autonomy and power. Despite critics’ attempts to disempower her, Kempe refuses to accept the marginalization of female sexuality, crosses traditional gender role boundaries, and determines her own voice and social role through speech and writing. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Margery Kempe: A Book of Essays.   Edited by Sandra J. McEntire .   Garland Publishing, 1992. Romance Quarterly , 39., 2 (May 1992):  Pages 117 - 135.
Year of Publication: 1992.

196. Record Number: 10529
Author(s): Regnier-Bohler, Danielle.
Contributor(s):
Title : Literary and Mystical Voices [The relationship between women and language in medieval texts is complicated and contradictory. Some writers ascribe great agency and power to women’s use of language, while others seek to silence female voices. Mythical figures like Philomena, Echo, and Griselda are pervasive figures of silent women, and actual medieval women do not necessarily speak in their own voices (they are mediated by male writers). In addition, women’s use of language is often deemed evil, unreliable, or obscene. Literary voices like the poet Christine de Pizan and female mystics like Margery Kempe express themselves in new styles that are at once powerful and complex. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: A History of Women in the West. Volume 2: Silences of the Middle Ages.   Edited by Christiane Klapisch-Zuber .   Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1992. Romance Quarterly , 39., 2 (May 1992):  Pages 427 - 482.
Year of Publication: 1992.

197. Record Number: 8726
Author(s): Quilligan, Maureen.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Name of the Author: Self-Representation in Christine de Pizan's "Livre de la cite des dames" [The article focuses on the way Christine de Pizan constructs herself as a "professional" writer by naming herself at key moments, and by making her own experience the fundamental authority in her text. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Exemplaria: A Journal of Theory in Medieval and Renaissance Studies , 4., 1 (Spring 1992):  Pages 201 - 228.
Year of Publication: 1992.

198. Record Number: 10378
Author(s): Mombello, Gianni
Contributor(s): Margolis, Nadia, trans. and ed.
Title : Christine de Pizan and the House of Savoy [The author traces the relationship between Christine’s family and the royal House of Savoy, particularly the ties between Christine’s father Thomas and members of the Savoy court. The article lists the manuscripts of Christine’s works recorded in Savoy household accounts during the fifteenth century. Although most of the manuscripts in the Savoy collection were destroyed in later centuries, some remain. The article ends with a bibliography of the current manuscript holdings of Christine’s works in the Savoy; the contents and codicological details of each manuscript are described. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Reinterpreting Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Earl Jeffrey Richards, Joan Williamson, Nadia Margolis, and Christine Reno .   University of Georgia Press, 1992.  Pages 187 - 204.
Year of Publication: 1992.

199. Record Number: 10245
Author(s): Lawton, David.
Contributor(s):
Title : Voice, Authority, and Blasphemy in "The Book of Margery Kempe" [The author examines the importance of blasphemy in the production of literary texts in fifteenth-century England; during this time, vernacular writing was sometimes associated with heresy. While some readers fear Kempe expresses unorthodox religious ideas, the author notes that Kempe espouses orthodox views. Kempe also demonstrates a knowledge of Latin texts even though she claims to be illiterate. Ultimately, Kempe’s unique voice as a woman is preserved through the text even if her speech is mediated by a long line of male scribes and editors. Title note supplied by Feminae].
Source: Margery Kempe: A Book of Essays.   Edited by Sandra J. McEntire .   Garland Publishing, 1992. Exemplaria: A Journal of Theory in Medieval and Renaissance Studies , 4., 1 (Spring 1992):  Pages 93 - 115.
Year of Publication: 1992.

200. Record Number: 11118
Author(s): McKinley, Mary.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Subversive "Seulette" [The author briefly discusses Christine's rhetorical strategies in the "Lamentacion sur les maux de la guerre civile." While identifying herself as a "little woman, alone and apart," she persuasively but tactfully reminds the Duke of Berry of his obligations to the princes and people of France. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Politics, Gender, and Genre: The Political Thought of Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Margaret Brabant .   Westview Press, 1992. Exemplaria: A Journal of Theory in Medieval and Renaissance Studies , 4., 1 (Spring 1992):  Pages 157 - 169.
Year of Publication: 1992.

201. Record Number: 10249
Author(s): Barratt, Alexandra.
Contributor(s):
Title : Margery Kempe and the King’s Daughter of Hungary [In her “Book,” English mystic Margery Kempe adapts the text of another woman visionary, Saint Elizabeth of Hungary. Instances of devotional suffering, weeping, and self-martyrdom in Kempe’s book could be modeled on selected incidents in Elizabeth’s writings. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Margery Kempe: A Book of Essays.   Edited by Sandra J. McEntire .   Garland Publishing, 1992. Exemplaria: A Journal of Theory in Medieval and Renaissance Studies , 4., 1 (Spring 1992):  Pages 189 - 201.
Year of Publication: 1992.

202. Record Number: 9490
Author(s): Ross, Robert C.
Contributor(s):
Title : Oral life, written text: the genesis of the "Book of Margery Kempe." [The author proposes to treat Kempe’s “Book” as a form of oral life-history, in order to better understand its compositional integrity. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Yearbook of English Studies , 22., ( 1992):  Pages 226 - 237.
Year of Publication: 1992.

203. Record Number: 10736
Author(s): Bynum, Caroline Walker.
Contributor(s):
Title : “...And Woman His Humanity”: Female Imagery in the Religious Writing of the Later Middle Ages [The essay argues that late medieval writers used gendered imagery in different ways: while male writers saw gender as dichotomous, women writers often used the same imagery to represent a genderless humanity. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Fragmentation and Redemption: Essays on Gender and the Human Body in Medieval Religion. Caroline Walker Bynum .   MIT Press, 1991. Mediaeval Studies , 53., ( 1991):  Pages 151 - 180.
Year of Publication: 1991.

204. Record Number: 11041
Author(s): Beer, Jeanette Mary Ayres.
Contributor(s):
Title : A Fourteenth-century 'Bestiaire d'amour' [The author studies MS. New York Pierpont Morgan Library 459, and shows it to be an unconventional derivative of the earlier "Bestiaire d'amour," produced by a scribe who seems to have had little knowledge of its original author. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Reinardus: Yearbook of the International Reynard Society , 4., ( 1991):  Pages 19 - 26.
Year of Publication: 1991.

205. Record Number: 11067
Author(s): Hicks, Eric.
Contributor(s):
Title : “Le Livre des Trois Vertus” of Christine de Pizan: Beinecke MS. 427 [Christine exerted a large degree of control over the production and transmission of her writings. Although it is unknown whether any existing manuscript of Christine’s work is written in her own handwriting, Christine did act as both author and editor of manuscripts containing her own poetry. The paintings in Beinecke MS. 427 suggest that Christine also oversaw the illumination of her manuscripts, as the representation of allegorical figures in this volume follow the text of the poem more closely than the illustrations in other manuscripts. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Yale French Studies (Full Text via JSTOR) (1991): 57-71. Special Editions: Style and Values in Medieval Art and Literature.Link Info
Year of Publication: 1991.

206. Record Number: 11068
Author(s): Nichols, Stephen G.
Contributor(s):
Title : Marie de France’s Commonplaces [In her lais, Marie espouses the low culture of oral tradition and Breton folk tales over the literate Latin tradition, which was held in high esteem. The poetic technique of her lais combines classical rhetoric and popular narrative elements (like the use of vernacular and common proverbs). Her innovative use of commonplaces departs from Classical traditions and reforms the attitudes toward women and sexuality expressed in canonical Latin poetry. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Yale French Studies (Full Text via JSTOR) (1991): 134-148. Special Editions: Style and Values in Medieval Art and Literature.Link Info
Year of Publication: 1991.

207. Record Number: 11071
Author(s): Bardoel, Agatha Anna.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Psychology of Vision in Hadewijch [The author argues that Hadewijch's visions can be better understood by reading them against psychological studies of meditation. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Mystics Quarterly , 17., 2 ( 1991):  Pages 79 - 93.
Year of Publication: 1991.

208. Record Number: 11204
Author(s): Baumer-Despeigne, Odette.
Contributor(s):
Title : Hadewijch of Antwerp and Hadewijch II; Mysticism of Being in the Thirteenth Century in Brabant [The poems of the female mystic Hadewijch of Antwerp, composed between 1220 and 1240, were revised and augmented by another beguine (member of a sisterhood of laywomen) a decade later. This collaboration reflects the contemporary social trend among laywomen in the Low Countries to voluntary take up a simple life of chastity and poverty without joining a religious order. Although the poems composed by the Hadewijchs are written in the language of the trouveres and courtly love, they express a deep spirituality and love for God (not men). Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Studia Mystica , 14., 4 (Winter 1991):  Pages 16 - 37.
Year of Publication: 1991.

209. Record Number: 13347
Author(s): Rieger, Angelica
Contributor(s):
Title : Alamanda de Castelnau - Une "trobairitz" dans l'entourage des comtes de Toulouse? [The author suggests an historical identity for "bell' ami' Alamanda" who appears in a debate poem with the troubadour Giraut de Bornelh. Giraut asks Alamanda to intercede on his behalf with the lady whom he loves. Alamanda agrees but reminds him of the faults that he has committed. Rieger suggests Alamanda belonged to a powerful family which supported the counts of Toulouse. Her education at their court would have prepared her to compose poetry as did the "trobairitz," female troubadours. Title note provided by Feminae.]
Source: Zeitschrift für Romanische Philologie , 107., 1/2 ( 1991):  Pages 47 - 57.
Year of Publication: 1991.

210. Record Number: 12686
Author(s): Bruckner, Matilda Tomaryn.
Contributor(s):
Title : Strategies of Naming in Marie de France's "Lais": At the Crossroads of Gender and Genre [Bruckner examines Marie's use of names, both for the titles of her lais and for references to the author herself. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Neophilologus , 75., ( 1991):  Pages 31 - 40.
Year of Publication: 1991.

211. Record Number: 11084
Author(s): Johnson, Lynn Staley.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Trope of the Scribe and the Question of Literary Authority in the Works of Julian of Norwich and Margery Kempe [The author examines “scribal metaphors” and the figure of the scribe as they relate to women authors and literary authority in the works of Margery Kempe and Julian of Norwich. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Speculum , 66., 4 ( 1991):  Pages 820 - 838.
Year of Publication: 1991.

212. Record Number: 8661
Author(s): Craine, Renate.
Contributor(s):
Title : Hildegard of Bingen: "The Earth Hungers for the Fullness of Justice" [The author interprets Hildegard of Bingen’s "Liber Vitae Meritorum" as a call for present-day readers to make ecology a spiritual priority. The striking imagery in Hildegard’s writing reminds us that humans are in a relationship with God’s creation and are responsible for taking care of the environment. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Cistercian Studies Quarterly , 26., 2 ( 1991):  Pages 120 - 126.
Year of Publication: 1991.

213. Record Number: 11209
Author(s): McNamer, Sarah
Contributor(s):
Title : Female Authors, Provincial Setting: The Re-versing of Courtly Love in the Findern Manuscript [The article includes an appendix with transcriptions of Middle English poems believed to be written by women. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Viator , 22., ( 1991):  Pages 279 - 310.
Year of Publication: 1991.

214. Record Number: 10684
Author(s): McCash, June Hall.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Hawk-Lover in Marie de France's "Yonec" [Allusions to hunting and hawk imagery play an important role in this poem. Although hawks and falcons could hold many different meanings to medieval writers, Marie draws upon courtly conventions that compare the knight and lover to a hawk pursuing his prey. In her poem, she reverses the predatory imagery associated with hawks by making the knight (who transfomrs into a hawk) a symbol of faithful love and self-sacrafice. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Medieval Perspectives , 6., ( 1991):  Pages 67 - 75.
Year of Publication: 1991.

215. Record Number: 16591
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Marguerite Reads Giovanni: Gender and Narration in the "Heptaméron" and the "Decameron" [The article studies the ways in which Marguerite de Navarre rewrites the gender of Boccaccio's narrative voice in her translation, thereby questioning the function of gender in authorship. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Renaissance and Reformation/Renaissance et Réforme New Series , 1 ( 1991):  Pages 21 - 36.
Year of Publication: 1991.

216. Record Number: 10682
Author(s): Ross, Ellen M.
Contributor(s):
Title : Spiritual Experience and Women's Autobiography: The Rhetoric of Selfhood in "The Book of Margery Kempe" [Kempe uses domestic and familial language as the dominant metaphors for describing her relationship with the divine and her mode of understanding, experiencing, and expressing the self. Not only does she use relational terms like "daughter," "mother," and "sister" to describe her connections to Christ and the Virgin Mary, but she also identifies herself with a tradition of holy women and, at other times, as a prophet. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Religion , 59., 3 (Fall 1991):  Pages 527 - 546.
Year of Publication: 1991.

217. Record Number: 11807
Author(s): Nelson, Charles.
Contributor(s):
Title : Hrotsvit von Gandersheim: Madwoman in the Abbey [The essay approaches Hrotsvitha von Gandersheim’s life from a contemporary feminist perspective. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Women as Protagonists and Poets in the German Middle Ages: An Anthology of Feminist Approaches to Middle High German Literature.   Edited by Albrecht Classen .   Kümmerle Verlag, 1991. Journal of the American Academy of Religion , 59., 3 (Fall 1991):  Pages 43 - 55.
Year of Publication: 1991.

218. Record Number: 10885
Author(s): Steinle, Eric M.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Knot, the Belt, and the Making of "Guigemar" [Marie de France uses imagery in her lais in order to summarize the structural and thematic concerns of her poems. In “Guigemar,” the knot and the belt (which the lovers exchange as love tokens) and thematic references to forms of enclosure symbolize the thematic unity and circular narrative of the poem; the knot and the belt are also metaphors that refer to Marie’s own role as “maker” or author of intricate narratives. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Assays: Critical Approaches to Medieval and Renaissance Texts , 6., ( 1991):  Pages 29 - 53.
Year of Publication: 1991.

219. Record Number: 11074
Author(s): Peters, Brad.
Contributor(s):
Title : Julian of Norwich and Her Conceptual Development of Evil [The author studies Julian’s developing conceptualization of evil, and shows that, according to her theory, evil ultimately damns itself. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Mystics Quarterly , 17., 4 ( 1991):  Pages 181 - 188.
Year of Publication: 1991.

220. Record Number: 10680
Author(s): Stoudt, Debra L.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Production and Preservation of Letters by Fourteenth-Century Dominican Nuns [Dominican priests often advised members of female religious houses on both practical and spiritual matters, and at times they aided women writers like Margaretha Ebner and Elsbeth Stagel as scribes or editors of their work. Letters by priests to nuns are more likely to be preserved than correspondence written by nuns themselves. The author gives two major reasons for the discrepancy: the letters were pereived to have historical and instructional values for the convent community, and priests held higher rank in the church hierarchy than nuns. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Mediaeval Studies , 53., ( 1991):  Pages 309 - 326.
Year of Publication: 1991.

221. Record Number: 11813
Author(s): Stoudt, Debra L.
Contributor(s):
Title : “Ich sundig wip mus schriben”: Religious Women and Literary Traditions [The author studies three generations of visionary religious literature written by German women, showing that female religious authors often used the metaphorical language of mysticism. Appendix shows excerpts from three German religious texts by women. T
Source: Women as Protagonists and Poets in the German Middle Ages: An Anthology of Feminist Approaches to Middle High German Literature.   Edited by Albrecht Classen .   Kümmerle Verlag, 1991. Mediaeval Studies , 53., ( 1991):  Pages 147 - 168.
Year of Publication: 1991.

222. Record Number: 12670
Author(s): Dufresne, Laura Rinaldi
Contributor(s):
Title : A Woman of Excellent Character: A Case Study of Dress, Reputation, and the Changing Costume of Christine de Pizan in the Fifteenth Century [The author surveys fifteenth century manuscript representations of Christine de Pizan. During her lifetime in manuscripts prepared under her supervision, Christine is presented in modest dress as befits a scirbe and court author. This is in keeping with the message of "Le Trésor" which emphasizes proper conduct for women of every social group. Manuscripts from later in the century, however, give her greater authority by depicting her in furs, elaborate headdresses, and other fashions of contemporary high-born ladies. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Dress: Annual Journal of the Costume Society of America , 17., ( 1990):  Pages 104 - 117.
Year of Publication: 1990.

223. Record Number: 6358
Author(s): Carrara, Eliana.
Contributor(s):
Title : Christine de Pizan: Biografia di una donna di lettere del XV secolo [Christine de Pizan was raised in her father's shadow and married young; left a widow, she had to support her children and her aged mother with her pen; she was mostly an author but also (it seems) a copyist; she particularly depended on the patronage of the French royal family].
Source: Quaderni Medievali , 29., (Giugno 1990):  Pages 65 - 81.
Year of Publication: 1990.

224. Record Number: 6508
Author(s): Robertini, Luca.
Contributor(s):
Title : L'Uso del diminutivo in Rosvita [the diminutive has an informal, oral ring in Hrotsvitha's Latin; she used it frequently in her early works but less thereafter; many of Hrotsvitha's diminutives seem to have been derived from the Latin classics via the grammarians].
Source: Medioevo e Rinascimento , ( 1990):  Pages 123 - 142.
Year of Publication: 1990.

225. Record Number: 12696
Author(s): Schmitt, Miriam.
Contributor(s):
Title : Freed to Run with Expanded Heart: The Writings of Gertrud of Helfta and the Rule of Benedict [In her writings, Helfta interprets liberty of heart as a personal passage from inner bondage to spiritual freedom. She also exemplifies the qualities of a liberated heart which Benedict outlines in his regula. The author equates Gertrude's "libertas cordis" (liberated heart in mystical love) is equated with Benedict's "cor dilatatus" (heart expanded by ineffable love). Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Cistercian Studies , 25., 2 ( 1990):  Pages 220 - 232.
Year of Publication: 1990.

226. Record Number: 12748
Author(s): Al-Heitty, Abd Al-Kareem.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Contrasting Spheres of Free Women and Jawari in the Literary Life of the Early Abbasid Caliphate [Women, both bond and free, contributed much to Arabic literary life in the courts of the Abbasid caliphs. The poetry of women poets illustrates the overlapping social spheres occupied by free noble women and jawari (female slaves or prisoners of war) in early Abbasid times. Women of the courts could play active roles in governance and education and also played a crucial role in majalis (courtly social gatherings) by composing and performing poetry or facilitating more serious assemblies for intellectual discussion. However, as the luxury of the court increased and the number of jawari in the court grew, noble born upper class women began to be subjected to more circumscribed social roles and strict moral codes. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Al-Masåq , 3., ( 1990):  Pages 31 - 51.
Year of Publication: 1990.

227. Record Number: 12749
Author(s): Ford-Grabowsky, Mary.
Contributor(s):
Title : Angels and Archetypes: A Jungian Approach to Saint Hildegard [Jung’s psychological work on archetypes helps explain the elusive essence and role of angels in Christian theology. Hildegard’s vision of angels in her writings depict them as resembling archetypes in their dual nature, their affinity to divine energies, and their role in the individuation and salvation of the self. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: American Benedictine Review , 41., 1 ( 1990):  Pages 1 - 19.
Year of Publication: 1990.

228. Record Number: 12784
Author(s): Poe, Elizabeth Wilson.
Contributor(s):
Title : Another "salut d'amor"? Another "trobairitz"? In Defense of "Tanz salutz et tantas amors" [The author studies the troubadour lyric, Tanz salutz et tantas amors, in order to argue for its status as a salut d’amor, and to examine the possibility that it may have been written by a female poet. Includes an Appendix containing the text of the poem. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Zeitschrift für romanische Philologie , 106., ( 1990):  Pages 314 - 337.
Year of Publication: 1990.

229. Record Number: 12810
Author(s): Rosenn, Eva.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Discourse of Power: The Lyrics of the Trobairitz
Source: Comitatus , 21., ( 1990):  Pages 1 - 20.
Year of Publication: 1990.

230. Record Number: 12695
Author(s): Lewis, Gertrud Jaron.
Contributor(s):
Title : Libertas Cordis: The Concept of Inner Freedom in Saint Gertrud the Great of Helfta [Both the writings by and biographies of Saint Gertrud of Helfta (German nun and mystic) place supreme importance on inner freedom (freedom of spirit and freedom of heart). For Gertrud, striving for inner freedom and asceticism are intimately connected, and one paradoxically gains freedom by giving up oneself. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Cistercian Studies , 25., 1 ( 1990):  Pages 65 - 74.
Year of Publication: 1990.

231. Record Number: 12760
Author(s): Armstrong, Elizabeth Psakis.
Contributor(s):
Title : Motives of Charity in the Writing of Julian of Norwich and St. Teresa of Avila [The author argues that, despite the vast differences separating Teresa of Avila and Julian of Norwich, their spiritual writings bear many similarities. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Mystics Quarterly , 16., 1 (March 1990):  Pages 9 - 26.
Year of Publication: 1990.

232. Record Number: 12761
Author(s): Smith, Lera Baker.
Contributor(s):
Title : “Centering My Laugh” and Hadewijch [“Centering My Laugh” is a poem inspired by the author’s encounters with the writings of Hadewijch. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Mystics Quarterly , 16., 1 ( 1990):  Pages 34 - 36.
Year of Publication: 1990.

233. Record Number: 12863
Author(s): Spearing, A.C.
Contributor(s):
Title : Marie de France and Her Middle English Adapters [The author examines three Middle English lays alongside Le Fresne and Lanval in order to discover what such a comparison reveals about Marie de France's poems, as well as the English versions of them. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Studies in the Age of Chaucer , 12., ( 1990):  Pages 117 - 156.
Year of Publication: 1990.

234. Record Number: 11212
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Women and Music in Medieval Europe [While women in barbarian cultures sometimes had a stature that equaled that of men and education for women included some musical training, women’s formal participation in the musical arts declined as Roman culture spread. Music as rhetoric was considered part of elementary education and the philosophy of music was an important branch of the liberal arts curriculum, but universities were closed to women in the Middle Ages. Although most women did not have access to formal education in music, many women still participated in minstrelsy (a barbarian art) and the performance of plays. Some noteworthy women composed lyrics and music as well, including the trobairitz (women troubadours) and Hroswitha, a playwright who was also a poet and musician. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Mediaevalia , 14., ( 1988):  Pages 1 - 21. 1991 (for 1988)
Year of Publication: 1988.

235. Record Number:
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Christine de Pizan in her Study
Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/91/Christine_de_pisan.jpg/250px-Christine_de_pisan.jpg
Year of Publication: