Feminae: Medieval Women and Gender Index


70 Record(s) Found in our database

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1. Record Number: 30105
Author(s): Laszlovszky, József
Contributor(s):
Title : "Fama sanctitatis" and the Emergence of St. Margaret's Cult in the Rural Countryside: The Canonization Process and Social Mobility in Thirteenth-Century Hungary [The author analyzes a family's testimony in the canonization process of Saint Margaret of Hungary in 1276. The mother found her infant son dead in bed next to her and prayed to Saint Margaret for help. A few hours later he came back to life. Laszlovsz
Source: Promoting the Saints: Cults and Their Contexts from Late Antiquity until the Early Modern Period. Essays in Honor of Gábor Klaniczay for His 60th Birthday.   Edited by Ottó Gecser, József Laszlovszky, Balázs Nagy, Marcell Sebok, and Katalin Szende .   Central European University Press, 2011.  Pages 103 - 123.
Year of Publication: 2011.

2. Record Number: 15839
Author(s): Tomas, Natalie.
Contributor(s):
Title : Did Women Have a Space? [The author briefly surveys the kinds of activities in which Florentine women took part. Given the gendered expectations of fathers and husbands based on religious beliefs and concerns with family honor, young and married women from privileged families mostly stayed at home. But this situation is further complicated by palaces being used for politics and business. Furthermore marriages were part of family strategies, and mothers of brides and grooms often took an active role in the considerations. Women from powerful families like Lucrezia Tornabuoni of the Medici, used their patron-client relationships to help the deserving and promote their families. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Renaissance Florence: A Social History.   Edited by Roger J. Crum and John T. Paoletti .   Cambridge University Press, 2006.  Pages 311 - 328.
Year of Publication: 2006.

3. Record Number: 11752
Author(s): Stanbury, Sarah and Virginia Chieffo Raguin
Contributor(s):
Title : Introduction [The authors briefly discuss ideas involved with women and their relations to the physical spaces of churches. They introduce theorists who have had an influence in this area including Pierre Bourdieu. They discuss the case of the squint, a hole in the screen around the chancel allowing a view of the altar, in terms of women's use and the subjective experience of peeping into a privileged space. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Women's Space: Patronage, Place, and Gender in the Medieval Church.   Edited by Virginia Chieffo Raguin and Sarah Stanbury .   State University of New York Press, 2005.  Pages 1 - 21.
Year of Publication: 2005.

4. Record Number: 14605
Author(s): Esposito, Anna.
Contributor(s):
Title : La normative suntuaria romana tra Quattrocento e Cinquecento [The sumptuary laws of Renaissance Rome survive from the 15th century onward. Laws made by the Romans themselves, with papal approval, try to distinguish citizens of higher or lower class from curialists, nobles and foreigners. Among the concerns of the legislators were ever growing amounts spent on dowries and display of wealth at marriages and funerals. Foods served at banquets also were regulated by these decrees. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Economia e societa a Roma tra Medioevo e Rinascimento: Studi dedicati ad Arnold Esch.   Edited by Anna Esposito and Luciano Palermo .   Viella, 2005. New Medieval Literatures , 7., ( 2005):  Pages 147 - 179.
Year of Publication: 2005.

5. Record Number: 11757
Author(s): French, Katherine L.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Seat under Our Lady: Gender and Seating in Late Medieval English Parish Churches [The author argues that women's seating arrangements in churches give access to information about women in parish life that is otherwise unavailable. In her study of pew usage in Winchester, French demonstrates that women had a sanctioned space in the nave that frequently expressed status and the promotion of family interests. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Women's Space: Patronage, Place, and Gender in the Medieval Church.   Edited by Virginia Chieffo Raguin and Sarah Stanbury .   State University of New York Press, 2005.  Pages 141 - 160.
Year of Publication: 2005.

6. Record Number: 14606
Author(s): Raine, Melissa.
Contributor(s):
Title : Fals flesch: Food and the Embodied Piety of Margery Kempe [In examining Margery Kempe's various interactions with food which include feeding the poor, fasting, receiving the Eucharist, and eating at the tables of prominent people, Raine does not find gender a highly significant factor. Rather Margery acts out of highly individualized motivations including a concern to establish and enhance her own standing. In her conclusion Raine questions Caroline Walker Bynum's approach to women and food in Holy Feast and Holy Fast, finding the methodology and assumptions inadequate for the historical realities of gendered expectations and devotional practices. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: New Medieval Literatures , 7., ( 2005):  Pages 101 - 126.
Year of Publication: 2005.

7. Record Number: 12610
Author(s): Ashley, Kathleen.
Contributor(s):
Title : Material and Symbolic Gift-Giving: Clothes in English and French Wills [The practice of bequeathing clothing to friends, relatives, and others in one’s will was common in late medieval and Early Modern England and France. Major differences in how clothing is dispensed in the wills arise not when one compares the gender of particular testators but the socioeconomic class of the individual. Among lower class people, items of clothing function as commodities (objects of use or value to be passed along), but for bourgeois and aristocratic people clothing carries both material and symbolic value. In these social classes, giving clothing can signify a sentimental attachment to a person or it can constitute a spiritual act of almsgiving. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Medieval Fabrications: Dress, Textiles, Clothwork, and Other Cultural Imaginings.   Edited by E. Jane Burns .   Palgrave, 2004. Past and Present , 182., (February 2004):  Pages 137 - 146.
Year of Publication: 2004.

8. Record Number: 12609
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Limiting Yardage and Changes of Clothes: Sumptuary Legislation in Thirteenth-Century France, Languedoc, and Italy [In Western Europe, the first laws to control the expenditure and display of dress by laypersons appeared in the thirteenth century. The initial period of regulating activity in Occitania, France, and Italy developed from ecclesiastical laws regulating clerical dress, but the political origins and motivations for the legislation varied by region. Italian and Occitan cities based their legislation upon Roman law, while northern regions of France used customary law; the cities of Montpellier and Siena focused more attention on women’s display than men’s, while most French regions were more interested in keeping a clear correlation between social status and wealth in general. The effects of sumptuary legislation on people in these regions are reflected by numerous sartorial concerns in contemporary vernacular poetry and didactic literatures. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Medieval Fabrications: Dress, Textiles, Clothwork, and Other Cultural Imaginings.   Edited by E. Jane Burns .   Palgrave, 2004. New Medieval Literatures , 7., ( 2005):  Pages 121 - 136.
Year of Publication: 2004.

9. Record Number: 10984
Author(s): Harker, C. Marie.
Contributor(s):
Title : Chrystis Kirk on the Grene and "Peblis to the Ploy": The Economy of Gender [In these two Middle Scots satires female misbehavior is defined as sexual license, whether it be peasant girls who are available to every man or the lower-class woman who thinks that she can entice a well-off merchant. Harker argues that anxieties over class distinction and the instability of the urban burghs are transferred to unruly, lower class female bodies. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Woman and the Feminine in Medieval and Early Modern Scottish Writing.   Edited by Sarah M. Dunnigan, C. Marie Harker, and Evelyn S. Newlyn .   Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. New Medieval Literatures , 7., ( 2005):  Pages 31 - 46.
Year of Publication: 2004.

10. Record Number: 11500
Author(s): Muessig, Carolyn
Contributor(s):
Title : Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete [In comparing the situation of slaves' children fathered by their masters in Crete and in the mainland cities of Venice, Genoa, and Florence, the author argues that "Latin" ancestry counted in the colonial setting but not in the Italian cities. Introducing children of mixed parentage into society mattered more for a frontier society where the conquering Western Europeans were in the minority. However, in both areas in the late Middle Ages, custom pushed to extend free status to the children of slaves by assuming that the children inherited their fathers' status rather than their mothers' servile condition. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Past and Present , 182., (February 2004):  Pages 31 - 53.
Year of Publication: 2004.

11. Record Number: 7869
Author(s): Bennett, Judith M.
Contributor(s):
Title : England: Women and Gender [The author provides an overview of recent historiographic issues for the study of women and gender in late medieval England. Topics highlighted include the recent emphasis on the many differences in medieval women's conditions (social status, stage in the life course, ethnicity, religious status, and more), changes over time, medieval expectations of the roles and behaviors for women, and the impact of women's history on the history of medieval England in general. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: A Companion to Britain in the Later Middle Ages.   Edited by S. H. Rigby .   Blackwell Companions to British History. Blackwell Publishing, 2003. Renaissance studies : journal of the Society for Renaissance Studies , 17., 2 (June 2003):  Pages 87 - 106.
Year of Publication: 2003.

12. Record Number: 10963
Author(s): Strocchia, Sharon T.
Contributor(s):
Title : Taken into Custody: Girls and Convent Guardianship in Renaissance Florence
Source: Renaissance studies : journal of the Society for Renaissance Studies , 17., 2 (June 2003):  Pages 177 - 200.
Year of Publication: 2003.

13. Record Number: 10783
Author(s): Jones, Leslie C. and Jonathan J. G. Alexander
Contributor(s):
Title : The Annunciation to the Shepherdess [The authors explore the representation of shepherdesses in fifteenth century deluxe books of hours. There are a variety of types including eroticized figures, pious saint-like young women, and disorderly peasant dancers. The authors suggest that in many cases differences in social class are being emphasized for noble owners (both male and female) of these books of hours. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Studies in Iconography , 24., ( 2003):  Pages 165 - 198.
Year of Publication: 2003.

14. Record Number: 11824
Author(s): Crawford, Sally.
Contributor(s):
Title : Anglo-Saxon Women, Furnished Burial, and the Church [The author discusses the possible meanings of women's burials during the Conversion Period in Anglo-Saxon England. Scholars have attributed Christian or non-Christian beliefs to the locations of burials (churchyards, barrows, and ancestral graveyards), presence or absence of grave goods, and inclusion of seemingly Christian symbols like cruciform jewellry. The need for high status families to display their prestige and wealth through an ostentatious burial of a female member is also an important consideration. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Women and Religion in Medieval England.   Edited by Diana Wood .   Oxbow Books, 2003. Renaissance studies : journal of the Society for Renaissance Studies , 17., 2 (June 2003):  Pages 1 - 12.
Year of Publication: 2003.

15. Record Number: 8711
Author(s): Lawless, Catherine
Contributor(s):
Title : Women on the Margins: The "Beloved" and the "Mistress" in Renaissance Florence [The author discusses women who were in irrgular relationships with men, whether as idealized love objects or in extra-marital sexual relationships. The women involved range from the daughters of the most important families and nuns to slaves and poor women. While wealthy young brides like Ginevra de'Benci could flirt with romantic love without loss of status, concubines who lived outside the family structure risked marginality and illegitimacy for their children. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Studies on Medieval and Early Modern Women: Pawns or Players?   Edited by Christine Meek and Catherine Lawless .   Four Courts Press, 2003. Renaissance studies : journal of the Society for Renaissance Studies , 17., 2 (June 2003):  Pages 111 - 130.
Year of Publication: 2003.

16. Record Number: 7410
Author(s): Guzzetti, Linda and Antje Ziemann
Contributor(s):
Title : Women in the Fourteenth-Century Venetian "Scuole"
Source: Renaissance Quarterly , 55., 4 (Winter 2002):  Pages 1151 - 1195.
Year of Publication: 2002.

17. Record Number: 11032
Author(s): Davis, Isabel.
Contributor(s):
Title : Consuming the Body of the Working Man in the Later Middle Ages [The author argues for a more nuanced reading of the working man's body. Davis cites literary texts in which the male peasant is associated with food and sustenance while other texts emphasize the pain and bodily disfigurement that the work brings. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Consuming Narrative: Gender and Monstrous Appetite in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.   Edited by Liz Herbert McAvoy and Teresa Walters .   University of Wales Press, 2002. Renaissance Quarterly , 55., 4 (Winter 2002):  Pages 42 - 53.
Year of Publication: 2002.

18. Record Number: 8802
Author(s): Sebregondi, Ludovica.
Contributor(s):
Title : Clothes and Teenagers: What Young Men Wore in Fifteenth-Century Florence [The author argues that young Florentine men wore distinctive clothing. Tight-fitting and revealing cothing that emphasized the wearer's masculinity were popular. Moralists complained but did not succeed in changing fashions. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: The Premodern Teenager: Youth in Society, 1150-1650.   Edited by Konrad Eisenbichler .   Publications of the Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies, Essays and Studies, 1. Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies, 2002. Renaissance Quarterly , 55., 4 (Winter 2002):  Pages 27 - 50.
Year of Publication: 2002.

19. Record Number: 7056
Author(s): Chojnacki, Stanley.
Contributor(s):
Title : Valori patrizi nel tribunale patriarcale: Girolamo da Mula e Marietta Soranzo (Venezia 1460) [Venetian ecclesiastical tribunals often had to balance canon law and political considerations. Giovanni Gabriel was able to argue successfully the importance of the disparate social stranding of Orsa Dolfin and himself. Girolamo da Mula, however, was unsuccessful in using a similar argument to deny that he was married to Marietta Soranzo. Her family was noble and simply out of favor politically. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Matrimoni in dubbio: unioni controverse e nozze clandestine in Italia dal XIV al XVIII secolo.   Edited by Silvana Seidel Menchi and Diego Quaglioni .   Mulino, 2001. Medieval Prosopography , 22., ( 2001):  Pages 199 - 245.
Year of Publication: 2001.

20. Record Number: 13638
Author(s): Ion, Despina.
Contributor(s):
Title : Politique matrimoniale et stratégies narratives dans "Garin le Loheren" [The author explores the marriage exchanges made by the king, Pippin, which sometimes favor the noble men from Lorraine and sometimes instead help their rivals, the nobles from Bordeaux. There is a great deal of maneuvering with the group from Bordeaux declaring matches invalid. Marriage is generally with a higher ranked woman which confers status and resources on the new husband. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: L' Épopée romane au moyen âge et aux temps modernes: Actes du XIVe Congrès International de la Société Rencesvals pour l' étude des épopées romanes: Naples, 24-30 juillet 1997. 2 volumes.   Edited by Salvatore Luongo .   Fridericiana Editrice Universitaria, 2001. Medieval Prosopography , 22., ( 2001):  Pages 247 - 265.
Year of Publication: 2001.

21. Record Number: 6924
Author(s): Krueger, Roberta L.
Contributor(s):
Title : Nouvelles Choses: Social Instability and the Problem of Fashion in the "Livre du Chevalier de la Tour Landry," the "Ménagier de Paris," and Christine de Pizan's "Livre des Trois Vertus" [The author argues that the anti-fashion discourse in the three texts confirms that sumptuary laws and the criticisms of authorities could not control women's desires for new fashions in clothing. In fact in the descriptions and illustrations of fashions
Source: Medieval Conduct.   Edited by Kathleen Ashley and Robert L. A. Clark .   Medieval Cultures, Volume 29. University of Minnesota Press, 2001. Renaissance Quarterly , 55., 4 (Winter 2002):  Pages 49 - 85.
Year of Publication: 2001.

22. Record Number: 6851
Author(s): Narbona-Cárceles, María.
Contributor(s):
Title : Woman at Court: A Prosopographic Study of the Court of Carlos III of Navarre (1387-1425) [The appendix lists the 364 women investigated along with their positions at court. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Medieval Prosopography , 22., ( 2001):  Pages 31 - 64.
Year of Publication: 2001.

23. Record Number: 6925
Author(s): Ashley, Kathleen.
Contributor(s):
Title : The "Miroir des bonnes Femmes": Not for Women Only? ["To read the 'Miroir des bonnes femmes' as relating only to women, therefore, would be to misunderstand its role in the formation of new ideologies during the fourteenth through the sixteenth centuries. The conjunction of female-based rhetoric, familial identities, and the promise of social advancement through proper conduct marks the first stage of a distinctive bourgeois ideology that will be fully articulated and culturally dominant by the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Despite the assumption, perhaps, on the part of conduct book owners that they are justifying a claim to 'noble' rank, it is in bourgeois culture that female honor is made the symbolic basis of a family's social reputation. As they cultivated that reputation and fostered a process of social advancement, fathers as well as their daughters therefore had a vital interest in owning conduct texts addressed to women." p. 102].
Source: Medieval Conduct.   Edited by Kathleen Ashley and Robert L. A. Clark .   Medieval Cultures, Volume 29. University of Minnesota Press, 2001. Medieval Prosopography , 22., ( 2001):  Pages 86 - 105.
Year of Publication: 2001.

24. Record Number: 5448
Author(s): Bridgeman, Jane.
Contributor(s):
Title : Pagare le pompe: Why Quattrocento Sumptuary Laws Did Not Work [the author argues that given the very high costs for fabric, especially luxury fabrics, sumptuary laws were intended as a supplementary taxation on the wealthy; instead of forbidding costly attire, the system gave those of high status the opportunity to dress opulently by paying fines].
Source: Women in Italian Renaissance Culture and Society.   Edited by Letizia Panizza .   European Humanities Research Centre, University of Oxford, 2000. Medieval Prosopography , 22., ( 2001):  Pages 209 - 226.
Year of Publication: 2000.

25. Record Number: 4245
Author(s): Farmer, Sharon.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Beggar's Body: Intersections of Gender and Social Status in High Medieval Paris [The author argues that gender must be viewed within a matrix of other factors including social status; she examines the case of lower status men who, in the eyes of the elite, had an association with the body as did women].
Source: Monks and Nuns, Saints and Outcasts: Religion in Medieval Society. Essays in Honor of Lester K. Little.   Edited by Sharon Farmer and Barbara H. Rosenwein .   Cornell University Press, 2000. Medieval Prosopography , 22., ( 2001):  Pages 153 - 171.
Year of Publication: 2000.

26. Record Number: 4368
Author(s): Edwards, Cyril.
Contributor(s):
Title : Mothers' Boys and Mothers' Girls in the Pastourelle: Oswald von Wolkenstein, "Frölich so wil Ich aber singen" (KL.79) [The author argues that the humor of Oswald's pastourelle comes from parody, social and gender role reversals, and the lady's snobbery].
Source: Forum for Modern Language Studies , 35., 1 ( 1999):  Pages 70 - 80.
Year of Publication: 1999.

27. Record Number: 3654
Author(s): Dressler, Rachel.
Contributor(s):
Title : Steel Corpse: Imaging the Knight in Death [The author argues that British tomb effigies constructed an elite, warrior masculinity].
Source: Conflicted Identities and Multiple Masculinities: Men in the Medieval West.   Edited by Jacqueline Murray .   Garland Medieval Casebooks, volume 25. Garland Reference Library of the Humanities, volume 2078. Garland Publishing, 1999. Medieval Prosopography , 22., ( 2001):  Pages 135 - 167.
Year of Publication: 1999.

28. Record Number: 4265
Author(s): Myers, Michael D.
Contributor(s):
Title : A Fictional-True Self: Margery Kempe and the Social Reality of the Merchant Elite Of King's Lynn [the author argues that Margery Kempe had fashioned her self-identity from the family status, social position, and mercantile values of her father; the decline of old-style merchant families like the Brunhams and the Kempes caused Margery to seek a new personal identity].
Source: Albion , 31., 3 (Fall 1999):  Pages 377 - 394.
Year of Publication: 1999.

29. Record Number: 4212
Author(s): Blumenfeld-Kosinski, Renate.
Contributor(s):
Title : Enemies Within/ Enemies Without: Threats to the Body Politic in Christine de Pizan
Source: Medievalia et Humanistica New Series , 26., ( 1999):  Pages 1 - 15. Special issue: Civil Strife and National Identity in the Middle Ages.
Year of Publication: 1999.

30. Record Number: 3742
Author(s): Hadley, D. M. and J. M. Moore
Contributor(s):
Title : Death Makes the Man?: Burial Rite and the Construction of Maculinities in the Early Middle Ages
Source: Masculinity in Medieval Europe.   Edited by D.M. Hadley .   Women and Men in History Series. Addison Wesley Longman, 1999. Medieval Prosopography , 22., ( 2001):  Pages 21 - 38.
Year of Publication: 1999.

31. Record Number: 3099
Author(s): Hurwich, Judith J.
Contributor(s):
Title : Marriage Strategy Among the German Nobility, 1400-1699 [argues that men of lower rank married women of higher rank].
Source: Journal of Interdisciplinary History , 29., 2 (Autumn 1998):  Pages 169 - 195.
Year of Publication: 1998.

32. Record Number: 8950
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Maintaining Boundaries: The Status of Actresses in Early Christian Society [The author deals in part with conditions in early Byzantium. In most instances actresses could only escape social and legal infamy by renouncing the stage. In a few cases, such as that of Theodora, highly favored actresses were able to marry into the senatorial class by some legal manoeuvering. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Vigiliae Christianae , 52., ( 1998):  Pages 293 - 318.
Year of Publication: 1998.

33. Record Number: 3079
Author(s): Léglu, Catherine.
Contributor(s):
Title : Identifying the "Toza" in Medieval Occitan "Pastorela" and Old French "Pastourelle" [the"toza" or girl sometimes has an ambiguous social status; she also often serves as the mouthpiece for the poet].
Source: French Studies , 52., 2 (April 1998):  Pages 129 - 141.
Year of Publication: 1998.

34. Record Number: 3704
Author(s): Flanagan, Sabina.
Contributor(s):
Title : For God Distinguishes the People of Earth as in Heaven : Hildegard of Bingen's Social Ideas
Source: Journal of Religious History , 22., 1 (February 1998):  Pages 14 - 34.
Year of Publication: 1998.

35. Record Number: 2273
Author(s): Zimmermann, Margarete
Contributor(s):
Title : English Noblewomen and the Local Community in the Later Middle Ages [roles that noble women played at the local level as employers, almsgivers, supporters of the parish, providers of hospitality and entertainment, and members of confraternities].
Source: Medieval Women in Their Communities.   Edited by Diane Watt .   University of Toronto Press, 1997. Journal of Religious History , 22., 1 (February 1998):  Pages 186 - 203.
Year of Publication: 1997.

36. Record Number: 3913
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Boys Will Be... What? Gender, Sexuality, and Childhood in "Floire et Blancheflor" and "Floris et Lyriope" [The author argues that in both texts boyish sexuality leads to inappropriate choices, Floris transgresses social hierarchy and Floire calls into question the categories of gender and kinship].
Source: Exemplaria: A Journal of Theory in Medieval and Renaissance Studies , 9., 1 (Spring 1997):  Pages 39 - 61.
Year of Publication: 1997.

37. Record Number: 2421
Author(s): Karras, Ruth Mazo.
Contributor(s):
Title : Sharing Wine, Women, and Song: Masculine Identity Formation in the Medieval European Universities
Source: Becoming Male in the Middle Ages.   Edited by Jeffrey Jerome Cohen and Bonnie Wheeler .   Garland Publishing, 1997. Exemplaria: A Journal of Theory in Medieval and Renaissance Studies , 9., 1 (Spring 1997):  Pages 187 - 202.
Year of Publication: 1997.

38. Record Number: 2747
Author(s): Pedersen, Frederik.
Contributor(s):
Title : The York Cause Papers: A Reply to Jeremy Goldberg [reply by Frederik Pedersen to P.J.P. Goldberg's critique of Pedersen's earlier article on the York cause papers; he continues to argue that the data from the cause papers must be interpreted with great care].
Source: Continuity and Change , 12., 3 (December 1997):  Pages 447 - 455.
Year of Publication: 1997.

39. Record Number: 1934
Author(s): Lansing, Carol.
Contributor(s):
Title : Gender and Civic Authority: Sexual Control in a Medieval Italian Town
Source: Journal of Social History , 31., 1 (Fall 1997):  Pages 33 - 59.
Year of Publication: 1997.

40. Record Number: 2428
Author(s): Sponsler, Claire.
Contributor(s):
Title : Outlaw Masculinities: Drag, Blackface, and Late Medieval Laboring-Class Festiviities
Source: Becoming Male in the Middle Ages.   Edited by Jeffrey Jerome Cohen and Bonnie Wheeler .   Garland Publishing, 1997. Journal of Social History , 31., 1 (Fall 1997):  Pages 321 - 347.
Year of Publication: 1997.

41. Record Number: 2207
Author(s): Thomas, Hugh M.
Contributor(s):
Title : An Upwardly Mobile Medieval Woman: Juliana of Warwick [Juliana managed Countess Matilda's household (as "cameraria") and received gifts of land from her employer/patroness; Matilda also probably arranged Juliana's advantageous marriage with the wealthy knight, Nigel of Plumpton].
Source: Medieval Prosopography , 18., ( 1997):  Pages 109 - 121.
Year of Publication: 1997.

42. Record Number: 2746
Author(s): Goldberg, P.J.P.
Contributor(s):
Title : Debate: Fiction in the Archive: the York Cause Papers as a Source for Later Medieval Social History [Goldberg critiques Frederik Pedersen's recent article "Demography in the Archives: Social and Geographical Gactors in fourteenth-century York Cause Paper Marriage Litigation;" he argues against Pedersen's social groupings of litigants and witnesses as well as for the significance and value of the demographic and social evidence contained in the York cause papers].
Source: Continuity and Change , 12., 3 (December 1997):  Pages 425 - 445.
Year of Publication: 1997.

43. Record Number: 1725
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Crossing Borders: Gender, Geography, and Class Relations in Three "Serranillas" of the Marqués de Santillana [in each poem the male aristocrat narrator dominates the peasant woman with the implication of sexual conquest].
Source: Corónica , 25., 1 (Fall 1996):  Pages 69 - 84.
Year of Publication: 1996.

44. Record Number: 907
Author(s): Martines, Lauro.
Contributor(s):
Title : Amour et histoire dans la poésie de la Renaissance italienne [love poetry was influenced by many factors including religious beliefs, local tensions, ambition, patronage, social class, and misogyny].
Source: Annales : Histoire, Sciences Sociales , 51., 3 (mai-juin 1996):  Pages 575 - 603.
Year of Publication: 1996.

45. Record Number: 1168
Author(s): Nors, Thyra.
Contributor(s):
Title : Illegitimate Children and Their High-Born Mothers: Changes in the Perception of Legitimacy in Mediaeval Denmark [distinctions made between children born from arranged concubinage, secret liaisons, and relations between freemen and bondswomen; the Church censured illegitimacy, causing a steep decline in status].
Source: Scandinavian Journal of History , 21., 1 ( 1996):  Pages 17 - 37.
Year of Publication: 1996.

46. Record Number: 675
Author(s): Riddy, Felicity.
Contributor(s):
Title : Mother Knows Best: Reading Social Change in a Courtesy Text ["What the Goodwife Taught Her Daughter" embodies a bourgeois ethos that values respectability].
Source: Speculum (Full Text via JSTOR) 71, 1 (Jan. 1996): 66-86. Link Info
Year of Publication: 1996.

47. Record Number: 148
Author(s): Dufresne, Laura Rinaldi.
Contributor(s):
Title : Christine de Pizan's "Treasure of the City of Ladies": A study of Dress and Social Hierarchy [in four illustrated manuscripts].
Source: Woman's Art Journal (Full Text via JSTOR)16, 2 (Fall 1995/ Winter 1996): 29-34. Link Info
Year of Publication: 1995.

48. Record Number: 1618
Author(s): Vickers, Noreen.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Social Class of Yorkshire Medieval Nuns [evidence taken from charters, visitations, and wills].
Source: Yorkshire Archaeological Journal , 67., ( 1995):  Pages 127 - 132.
Year of Publication: 1995.

49. Record Number: 1697
Author(s): Lorcin, Marie-Thérèse.
Contributor(s):
Title : Le "Livre des Trois Vertus" et le "sermo ad status"
Source: Une femme de Lettres au Moyen Age: Études autour de Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Liliane Dulac and Bernard Ribémont .   Paradigme, 1995. Yorkshire Archaeological Journal , 67., ( 1995):  Pages 139 - 149.
Year of Publication: 1995.

50. Record Number: 8587
Author(s): Kennedy, Craig.
Contributor(s):
Title : Fathers, Sons, and Brothers: Ties of Metaphorical Kinship Between the Muscovite Grand Princes and the Tatar Elite [The author examines the connections established between Muscovite princes and Mongol allies. He argues that the hierarchy in family relationships was useful for conveying political status. Since both cultures gave similar meanings to birth order and age, it worked well. In some cases multiple connections (e.g. son and brother) were established when the relationship was somehwat ambiguous. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Harvard Ukrainian Studies , 19., ( 1995):  Pages 292 - 301. Kamen' Kraeog "I'n": Rhetoric of the Medieval Slavic World: Essays Presented to Edward L. Keenan on His Sixtieth Birthday by His Colleagues and Students. Edited by Nancy Shields Kollmann, Donald Ostrowski, Andrei Pliguzov, and Daniel Rowland.
Year of Publication: 1995.

51. Record Number: 3008
Author(s): Graña Cid, Maria del Mar and Ángela Muõz Fernández
Contributor(s):
Title : Mujeres y no ciudadanía. La relación de las mujeres con los espacios públicos en el bajo medievo castellano
Source: Arenal: Revista de Historia de las Mujeres , 2., 1 (January-June 1995):  Pages 41 - 52.
Year of Publication: 1995.

52. Record Number: 512
Author(s): Pedersen, Frederik.
Contributor(s):
Title : Demography in the Archives: Social and Geographical Factors in Fourteenth- Century York Cause Paper Marriage Litigation
Source: Continuity and Change , 10., 3 (Dec. 1995):  Pages 405 - 436.
Year of Publication: 1995.

53. Record Number: 1699
Author(s): Varty, Kenneth.
Contributor(s):
Title : Auour du "Livre des Trois Vertus" ou si rayson, droicture et justice faisaient des cours d'introduction à la civilisation française du moyen age? [author argues for the teaching of "Livre des Trois Vertus" to university students in French, history, and women's studies courses ; he highlights a number of topics in the text that are of interest to students].
Source: Une femme de Lettres au Moyen Age: Études autour de Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Liliane Dulac and Bernard Ribémont .   Paradigme, 1995. Continuity and Change , 10., 3 (Dec. 1995):  Pages 161 - 171.
Year of Publication: 1995.

54. Record Number: 445
Author(s): Parsons, John Carmi.
Contributor(s):
Title : Queen's Intercession in Thirteenth- Century England [contradictory nature of the queen's role as intercessor].
Source: Power of the Weak: Studies on Medieval Women. A selection of a papers presented at the annual conference of the Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Toronto, Feb. 1990.   Edited by Jennifer Carpenter and Sally- Beth MacLean .   University of Illinois Press, 1995. Continuity and Change , 10., 3 (Dec. 1995):  Pages 147 - 177.
Year of Publication: 1995.

55. Record Number: 24350
Author(s): Laughton, Jane.
Contributor(s):
Title : Women in Court: Some Evidence from Fifteenth-Century Chester [The author analyzes records from two Chester courts, the Portmote headed by the mayor and the Pentice presided over by the two city sheriffs. Analysis of Pentice rolls for 1431-32, 1459-60, and 1489-90 show women involved in 21% of cases. For both courts, women appear in a variety of roles including plaintiffs, pledges, traders and producers (many of them legally independent as "femmes soles"), debtors, thieves, and brawlers. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: Harlaxton Medieval Studies , 4., ( 1994):  Pages 89 - 99. Issue title: England in the Fifteenth Century: Proceedings of the 1992 Harlaxton Symposium
Year of Publication: 1994.

56. Record Number: 1559
Author(s): Warren, Nancy Bradley.
Contributor(s):
Title : Objects, Possession, and Identity in the "Lais" of Marie de France [characters are most fully revealed when their possessions (ring, clothing, tapestry, etc.) figure in the action as markers for their true selves].
Source: Romance Languages Annual , 6., ( 1994):  Pages 189 - 192.
Year of Publication: 1994.

57. Record Number: 9528
Author(s): Mitchell, Linda E.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Lady is a Lord: Noble Widows and Land in Thirteenth-Century Britain [Independent noble widows were common in medieval England; many chose to remain single after the death of a husband, thereby holding large amounts of land and maintaining control over their families and their tenants. These women actively participated in the public sphere, and social class carried greater importance than gender in defining their roles. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Historical Reflections/ Reflexions historiques , 18., 1 (Winter 1992):  Pages 71 - 97.
Year of Publication: 1992.

58. Record Number: 10527
Author(s): Opitz, Claudia.
Contributor(s):
Title : Life in the Late Middle Ages [The late-medieval era was a period of enormous change for women in work, family, life, and religion. Although women had an inferior legal status (laws limited their rights within the family and public sphere), some freedom did exist for women within marriage. Aristocratic women could be very influential because of their economic standing, middle class women could control household budgets, and rural women and wives of urban craftsmen sometimes had their status as laborers recognized. The author provides an overview of motherhood, fertility, contraception, women’s work (in rural and urban environments), and women’s participation in the fields of education, healing, health care, and crafts. Single women and widows could exert some power in their marginal positions. The author views convents as empowering institutions for women, although some people had anxieties about the status of women mystics. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: A History of Women in the West. Volume 2: Silences of the Middle Ages.   Edited by Christiane Klapisch-Zuber .   Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1992. History Today , 42., (April 1992):  Pages 267 - 317.
Year of Publication: 1992.

59. Record Number: 10677
Author(s): Olsen, Ulla Sander.
Contributor(s):
Title : Work and Work Ethics in the Nunnery of Syon Abbey in the Fifteenth Century [The author examines the Brigittine Rule and additional legislation for the nuns of Syon for sections dealing with manual labor. Saint Bridget originally declared that all sisters must work and there would be no "conversae" or servant sisters. However, the first nun at Syon refused to honor this provision. At the dissolution of Syon there were four lay sisters to do the heavy work. The nuns spent their work time doing embroidery and copying manuscripts. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Medieval Mystical Tradition in England: Exeter Symposium , 5., ( 1992):  Pages 129 - 143.
Year of Publication: 1992.

60. Record Number: 11111
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Polycracy, Obligation, and Revolt: The Body Politic in John of Salisbury and Christine de Pizan
Source: Politics, Gender, and Genre: The Political Thought of Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Margaret Brabant .   Westview Press, 1992. Historical Reflections/ Reflexions historiques , 18., 1 (Winter 1992):  Pages 33 - 52.
Year of Publication: 1992.

61. Record Number: 10523
Author(s): Hughes, Diane Owen.
Contributor(s):
Title : Regulating Women’s Fashion [Obsession with fashion was not seen as a particularly feminine problem until the twelfth century, when it became common to condemn women for their appetite for fancy clothing. As commerce in cloth increased, excessive clothing became increasingly associated with women. Governments enacted sumptuary laws (specifying what styles and colors of clothes one could wear) in order to fix social rank and status through clothing. Bourgeois women who were able to adopt rich array and change clothes according to recent fashion trends threatened social hierarchies. In the later Middle Ages clothing began to take on new meanings; it was seen not only as a mark of social status but as a sign of virtue or sin. Women often evaded the clothing constraints forced upon them, thereby reordering social distinctions. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: A History of Women in the West. Volume 2: Silences of the Middle Ages.   Edited by Christiane Klapisch-Zuber .   Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1992. Historical Reflections/ Reflexions historiques , 18., 1 (Winter 1992):  Pages 136 - 158.
Year of Publication: 1992.

62. Record Number: 10525
Author(s): L’Hermite-Leclercq, Paulette.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Feudal Order [The eleventh and twelfth centuries were a time of unity and stability in Europe, but it is hard to determine whether living conditions for women improved during this era. Women from this period rarely speak in their own voices, and their history is mostly mediated by men. Although some claim that women outnumbered men during this time so that women were more highly valued, the author refutes this claim. Noble birth and upbringing may have brought certain advantages to some girls, but gender and class hierarchies limited their options in life. Geographical location, social rank, and economic class profoundly influenced the lives and occupations of women in all three feudal estates: aristocratic women, religious women, and peasant women (rural and urban). Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: A History of Women in the West. Volume 2: Silences of the Middle Ages.   Edited by Christiane Klapisch-Zuber .   Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1992. Historical Reflections/ Reflexions historiques , 18., 1 (Winter 1992):  Pages 202 - 249.
Year of Publication: 1992.

63. Record Number: 9527
Author(s): Banner, Lois.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Fashionable Sex, 1100-1600 [The bodies of young men were often eroticized in late medieval and early modern Europe. Men’s clothing emphasized parts of the body associated with male sexuality and power, with shoes emphasizing the feet, fitted tights and trousers highlighting the legs, and codpieces drawing attention to the genitals. Clothing also indicated social class; for instance, poulaines (long, slender shoes) were associated with aristocrats and broad, short shoes with peasants. Changes in warfare and in social attitudes influenced evolving male fashions. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: History Today , 42., (April 1992):  Pages 37 - 44.
Year of Publication: 1992.

64. Record Number: 10679
Author(s): Elliott, Dylan.
Contributor(s):
Title : Dress as Mediator Between Inner and Outer Self: The Pious Matron of the High and Later Middle ages [Clothing often served as a saint's way of signifying the discrepancy between her percieved social standing (according to secular values) and her own individual selfhood (one based on spiritual beliefs). For married female saints, clothing was an even more complex form of symbolism as it often thwarted the wife's expected subordination to her husband while also projecting an image of virginity which was at odds with a married social persona. During the later Middle Ages, clergy began to endorse efforts to restrict the clothing of laywomen in order to maintain husbands' supremacy over their pious wives. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: Mediaeval Studies , 53., ( 1991):  Pages 279 - 308.
Year of Publication: 1991.

65. Record Number: 10688
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : The Wife of Bath and the Revelour: Power Struggles and Failure in a Marriage of Peers [The Wife of Bath’s fourth marriage differs from her previous ones in one major respect: the fourth husband is her equal in terms of financial and social status, age, and temperament. The Wife’s uncharacteristic silence about her fourth husband and any disputes they may have had in marriage suggests that neither spouse fully dominated in the relationship. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Medieval Perspectives , 6., ( 1991):  Pages 154 - 161.
Year of Publication: 1991.

66. Record Number: 12670
Author(s): Dufresne, Laura Rinaldi.
Contributor(s):
Title : A Woman of Excellent Character: A Case Study of Dress, Reputation, and the Changing Costume of Christine de Pizan in the Fifteenth Century [The author surveys fifteenth century manuscript representations of Christine de Pizan. During her lifetime in manuscripts prepared under her supervision, Christine is presented in modest dress as befits a scirbe and court author. This is in keeping with the message of "Le Trésor" which emphasizes proper conduct for women of every social group. Manuscripts from later in the century, however, give her greater authority by depicting her in furs, elaborate headdresses, and other fashions of contemporary high-born ladies. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Dress: Annual Journal of the Costume Society of America , 17., ( 1990):  Pages 104 - 117.
Year of Publication: 1990.

67. Record Number: 12748
Author(s): Al-Heitty, Abd Al-Kareem.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Contrasting Spheres of Free Women and Jawari in the Literary Life of the Early Abbasid Caliphate [Women, both bond and free, contributed much to Arabic literary life in the courts of the Abbasid caliphs. The poetry of women poets illustrates the overlapping social spheres occupied by free noble women and jawari (female slaves or prisoners of war) in early Abbasid times. Women of the courts could play active roles in governance and education and also played a crucial role in majalis (courtly social gatherings) by composing and performing poetry or facilitating more serious assemblies for intellectual discussion. However, as the luxury of the court increased and the number of jawari in the court grew, noble born upper class women began to be subjected to more circumscribed social roles and strict moral codes. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Al-Masåq , 3., ( 1990):  Pages 31 - 51.
Year of Publication: 1990.

68. Record Number: 12732
Author(s): Cohen, Esther and Elliott. Horowitz
Contributor(s):
Title : In search of the sacred: Jews, Christians, and rituals of marriage in the later Middle Ages [For many centuries, Jews lived among Christians in most of Europe, and despite religious differences there was much interaction between the two communities in the realm of public social rituals. Even though the two faiths had different philosophies on the purpose of marriage and ethical status of marital sex, Jewish and Christian weddings ran parallel in the gradual sacralization of what was originally a secular ritual and the development of distinct rituals for the remarriage of widows. The upper classes in Jewish and Christian communities approached the marriage ritual as a way to draw sharp distinctions between the two faiths, including the location and timing of the event and what visual elements or objects were used. However, the lower classes often shared more similarities in their ritual behaviors due to a larger degree of contact within a shared culture and common experience. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies , 20., 2 (Fall 1990):  Pages 225 - 249.
Year of Publication: 1990.

69. Record Number: 11192
Author(s): Harris, Barbara J.
Contributor(s):
Title : Property, Power, and Personal Relations: Elite Mothers and Sons in Yorkist and Early Tudor England [Women were often marginalized by patriarchal power structures that placed the father at the head of the family, but the birth of a son often elevated the wife’s position. Since the first son was greatly valued in a system of primogenitural inheritance, noble mothers often had close emotional ties to their sons. The political and social future of the family often rested on the mother’s ability to manage the household, display the family’s wealth and status, and negotiate marriages and other alliances for the family’s children. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society (Full Text via JSTOR) 15, 3 (Spring 1990): 606-632. Link Info
Year of Publication: 1990.

70. Record Number: 34917
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : The Story of Nastagio degli Onesti (Part III)
Source: Al-Masåq , 3., ( 1990):
Year of Publication: