Feminae: Medieval Women and Gender Index


48 Record(s) Found in our database

Search Results

1. Record Number: 27902
Author(s): Clare of Assisi
Contributor(s):
Title : Clare's "Forma vitae" [See also Joan Mueller's commentary on the "Forma vitae" in Chapter Seven, pages 209-257.]
Source: A Companion to Clare of Assisi: Life, Writings, and Spirituality. Joan Mueller. Brill's Companions to the Christian Tradition, , 21. .   Brill, 2010.  Pages 275 - 285.
Year of Publication: 2010.

2. Record Number: 31270
Author(s): Leander, Archbishop of Seville, Saint
Contributor(s): Martyn, John R. C., trans.
Title : On the Teaching of Nuns and Contempt for the Other World
Source: A Book on the Teaching of Nuns and a Homily in Praise of the Church. Leander, Archbishop of Sevilla   Edited by John R. C. Martyn .   Lexington Books, 2009.  Pages 62 - 132.
Year of Publication: 2009.

3. Record Number: 19088
Author(s): Goldfrank, David M.
Contributor(s):
Title : Sisterhood Just Might be Powerful: The Testament-Rule of Elena Devochkina [A testament-rule survives for the women’s monastery of Novodevichi in Moscow. It was written by the monastery’s superior, Elena Devochkina, around the middle of the sixteenth century. Goldfrank argues that Devochkina’s rule for her nuns is unusual in the emphasis she places on their role in praying to ensure new heirs for Ivan IV and his younger brother. The article concludes with an English language translation of the testament-rule. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: Russian History , 34., 40182 (Spring-Summer-Fall-Winter 2007):  Pages 189 - 205.
Year of Publication: 2007.

4. Record Number: 15871
Author(s): Piatti, Pierantonio.
Contributor(s):
Title : Augustinianae mulieres: "Un problema storiografico: il "moveimento femminile agostiniano" nel Medioevo tra carisma ed istituzione [The Augustinian hermits, like the other mendicant orders, were mostly based in cities and towns. One of their roles was spiritual direction of pious women, both nuns and tertiaries. The hermits promoted the cult of Saint Monica, the mother of Augustine of Hippo. They also adapted the Rule of Augustine for use by women connected to the order. The hermits, however, issued few regulations for the care of these women. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Quaderni Medievali , 58., (dicembre 2004):  Pages 43 - 61.
Year of Publication: 2004.

5. Record Number: 10217
Author(s): Bartoli, Marco.
Contributor(s):
Title : La minorita in Chiara d'Assisi [The Poor Clares occasionally were called "minorite" sisters in early thirteenth-century texts. Gregory IX, however, restricted the term to Franciscan males, and he denied the Clares use of a version of the Franciscan habit. Clare herself seems to have preferred to call her community the "poor sisters." Many later Francscian women, including some of the order's saints, did not have the foundress' sense of being lowly and subordinate to all. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Minores et subditi omnibus: tratti caratterizzanti dell'identità francescana: atti del Convegno, Roma 26-27 novembre 2002.   Edited by Luigi Padovese .   Edizioni Collegio S. Lorenzo da Brindisi- Laurentianum, 2003. Studies in Spirituality , 13., ( 2003):  Pages 205 - 216.
Year of Publication: 2003.

6. Record Number: 10896
Author(s): Mueller, Joan.
Contributor(s):
Title : Agnes of Prague and the Rule of St. Clare
Source: Studies in Spirituality , 13., ( 2003):  Pages 155 - 167.
Year of Publication: 2003.

7. Record Number: 11085
Author(s): Millett, Bella.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Genre of "Ancrene Wisse" [The author traces the sources that influenced the "Ancrene Wisse," beginning with Augustine's "libellus" of practical and spiritual advice through the near-contemporary Domincan adaptations of the Premonstratensian customary. Millett also signals the influence of the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 which would have made the "Ancrene Wisse" author more leery of encouraging new religious orders as well as taking on the pastoral care of religious women. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: A Companion to "Ancrene Wisse."   Edited by Yoko Wada .   D. S. Brewer, 2003. Studies in Spirituality , 13., ( 2003):  Pages 29 - 44.
Year of Publication: 2003.

8. Record Number: 8314
Author(s): Matter, E. Ann.
Contributor(s):
Title : Bible and Rule in the Clarissan Tradition [Clare and her sisters lobbied for papal approval of their rule. It can be understood as representing her own voice. The Rule quotes the gospels, while Clare's letters refer to the "Song of Songs" and other bridal images. Later Clares are found to be using both patterns of Biblical references. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Magistra , 8., 2 (Winter 2002):  Pages 77 - 83.
Year of Publication: 2002.

9. Record Number: 8313
Author(s): Brown, Jennifer N.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Rule of St. Benedict and Envisioning Jesus [The author compares Julian of Norwich's approach to knowing Christ with that of the Benedictine Rule. While the Rule emphasizes Christ's divinity, Julian stresses Christ's humanity and meditates on it through her own corporeality. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Magistra , 8., 2 (Winter 2002):  Pages 62 - 76.
Year of Publication: 2002.

10. Record Number: 8189
Author(s): Sorrentino, Janet.
Contributor(s):
Title : In Houses of Nuns, in Houses of Canons: A Liturgical Dimension to Double Monasteries
Source: Journal of Medieval History , 28., ( 2002):  Pages 361 - 372.
Year of Publication: 2002.

11. Record Number: 6085
Author(s): Lichtmann, Maria R.
Contributor(s):
Title : Three Models of Self-Governance: Medieval English Translations of Latin Rules for Nuns [The author looks at the rules for the Benedictines, Brigittines, and Poor Clares in regard to issues of governance and discipline].
Source: Magistra , 7., 2 (Winter 2001):  Pages 100 - 125.
Year of Publication: 2001.

12. Record Number: 4668
Author(s): Pasztor, Edith.
Contributor(s):
Title : Il monachesimo femminile [women's monasticism appeared in the West later than men's and always was communal, involving some form of enclosure; women shared unequally in the new religious movements of the eleventh through thirteenth centuries; even Clare of Assisi was unable to share fully in the poverty of Francis; despite Heloise's plea for a rule adapted to women's needs, most women's monasteries followed the Benedictine or the Augustinian rule].
Source: Donne e sante: Studi sulla religiosità femminile nel Medio Evo. Edith Pasztor .   Edizioni Studium, 2000. Magistra , 6., 2 (Winter 2000):  Pages 21 - 63. Originally published in Dall'eremo al cenobio. 1987. Pages 153-180.
Year of Publication: 2000.

13. Record Number: 4869
Author(s): Natvig, Mary.
Contributor(s):
Title : Rich Clares, Poor Clares: Celebrating the Divine Office ["The goal of this study is to trace the role of music in the Clarissan liturgy throughout the development of the order, from its origins in the early thirteenth century through its reform more than two hundred years later. Most of the extant evidence comes from the interpretation of numerous rules that governed the sisters." (Page. 60). Appendices include two extracts from the "Acta sanctorum" that describe how the Poor Clares celebrate the Divine Office, an extract from "Historiae seu vitae sanctorum" by Surius again describing the performance of the Office, and a list of polyphonic manuscripts with possible connections to the convents of St. Clare].
Source: Women and Music , 4., ( 2000):  Pages 59 - 70.
Year of Publication: 2000.

14. Record Number: 4607
Author(s): Kay, Sarah.
Contributor(s):
Title : Audacious Nuns: Institutionalizing the Franciscan Order of Saint Clare [The author analyzes the legal and political struggles between the Poor Clares and the male Franciscan order, with the women finally successful in ensuring that the Franciscans would provide them with spiritual care].
Source: Church History , 69., 1 (March 2000):  Pages 41 - 62.
Year of Publication: 2000.

15. Record Number: 5229
Author(s): Mueller, Joan.
Contributor(s):
Title : Agnes of Prague and the Juridical Implications of the Privilege of Poverty [Agnes, daughter of the King of Bohemia, was inspired by Clare of Assisi to enter the order of Poor Clares ; Agnes resisted papal efforts to force her acceptance of property and other endowments for her monastery].
Source: Franciscan Studies , 58., ( 2000):  Pages 261 - 287.
Year of Publication: 2000.

16. Record Number: 4841
Author(s): Crean, John E., Jr.
Contributor(s):
Title : Liturgia Horarum Feminina: The Office in German for Women [The author compares three German translations of the "Rule" (the "Oxford Rule," the "Berlin Rule," and the "Altenburg Rule") intended for women's houses].
Source: Magistra , 6., 2 (Winter 2000):  Pages 87 - 96.
Year of Publication: 2000.

17. Record Number: 3737
Author(s): Consolino, Franca Ela.
Contributor(s):
Title : Female Asceticism and Monasticism in Italy from the Fourth to the Eighth Centuries
Source: Women and Faith: Catholic Religious Life in Italy from Late Antiquity to the Present.   Edited by Lucetta Scaraffia and Gabriella Zarri .   Harvard University Press, 1999. Magistra , 5., 1 (Summer 1999):  Pages 8 - 30.
Year of Publication: 1999.

18. Record Number: 4714
Author(s): Lynn, Beth.
Contributor(s):
Title : What Difference Does a Rule Make? Clare's "Poor Sisters" and Gregory IX's Nuns [The author examines the various rules used by communities of Poor Clares, seeking to determine the degree of faithfulness to the values of Clare and Francis of Assisi].
Source: Magistra , 5., 1 (Summer 1999):  Pages 25 - 42.
Year of Publication: 1999.

19. Record Number: 4713
Author(s): Sutera, Judith, O.S.B.
Contributor(s):
Title : Benedictine Spirituality in the Life and Works of Hildegard of Bingen
Source: Magistra , 5., 1 (Summer 1999):  Pages 3 - 23.
Year of Publication: 1999.

20. Record Number: 9806
Author(s): De Vogüé, Adalbert.
Contributor(s):
Title : La Passion de Sainte Cécile. Ses rapports avec la vie de Saint Samson et la "Règle du Maître" [In a brief note the author signals similarities in phrasing among the "Passio sanctae Caeciliae," the "Vita" of Saint Samson of Dol, and the "Regula magistri." He suggests that the writer of Saint Cecilia's "Passio" may have borrowed from the "Regula magistri" and in turn later influenced the "Vita" of Saint Samson. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Studia Monastica , 40., 1 ( 1998):  Pages 7 - 10.
Year of Publication: 1998.

21. Record Number: 3465
Author(s): Warren, Nancy B.
Contributor(s):
Title : Saving the Market: Textual Strategies and Cultural Transformations in Fifteenth Century Translations of the Benedictine Rule for Women [The author argues that the translations/adaptations work to set up a hierarchical sex/gender system in which the female is constrained and Latin is privileged over the vernacular].
Source: Disputatio: An International Transdisciplinary Journal of the Late Middle Ages , 3., ( 1998):  Pages 34 - 50. Translation, Transformation, and Transubstantiation in the Late Middle Ages
Year of Publication: 1998.

22. Record Number: 4342
Author(s): Luscombe, David
Contributor(s):
Title : Peter Abelard's Carnal Thoughts [The author examines Abelard's arguments about the relationships among body, soul, and intentionality; the author concludes by analyzing the discussion between Abelard and Heloise concerning the Rule for the Paraclete].
Source: Medieval Theology and the Natural Body.   Edited by Peter Biller and A.J. Minnis York Studies in Medieval Theology .   York Medieval Press, 1997. Magistra , 3., 2 (Winter 1997):  Pages 31 - 41.
Year of Publication: 1997.

23. Record Number: 5004
Author(s): Sebastiani, Lucia.
Contributor(s):
Title : Da bizzocche a monache [Many penitent women, individual or in community, can be traced in northern Italy during the later Middle Ages. Some communities of these bizzoche were authorized by the local bishop rather than by the papacy. Most of these houses were pressured into adopting an existing monastic rule, claustration, and distinctive garb].
Source: Il monachesimo femminile in Italia dall' Alto Medioevo al secolo XVII a confronto con l' oggi.   Edited by Gabriella Zarri .   San Pietro in Cariano: Il Segno dei Gabrielli editori, 1997. Magistra , 3., 2 (Winter 1997):  Pages 193 - 218.
Year of Publication: 1997.

24. Record Number: 5471
Author(s): Marini, Alfonso.
Contributor(s):
Title : La "Forma Vitae" di san Francesco per San damiano fra Chiara d'Assisi, Agnese di Boemia ed interventi papali [The rule of Agnes' monastery in Prague evolved through correspondence with Francis and Clare, as well as with Pope Gregory IX; finally Gregory imposed on her foundation the same constitutions prepared for San Damiano, Assisi; the dietary rigor of these constitutions was moderated by Innocent IV; all of this can be seen as part of a process of regularizing new orders along the lines of preexisting ones].
Source: Hagiographica: Rivista di agiografia e biografia della società internazionale per lo studio del Medioevo Latino/ Journal of Hagiography and Biography of Società Internazionale per lo studio del Medioevo Latino , 4., ( 1997):  Pages 179 - 195.
Year of Publication: 1997.

25. Record Number: 2916
Author(s): Lynn, Beth, O.S.C.
Contributor(s):
Title : Clare of Assisi and Isabelle of Longchamp: Further Light on the Early Development of the Franciscan Charism
Source: Magistra , 3., 2 (Winter 1997):  Pages 71 - 98.
Year of Publication: 1997.

26. Record Number: 750
Author(s): Gennaro, Clara.
Contributor(s):
Title : Clare, Agnes, and Their Earliest Followers: From the Poor Ladies of San Damiano to the Poor Clares [Clare's efforts to follow Franciscan ideals of poverty and service versus Cardinal Ugolino's (later Pope Gregory IX) constitutions for the women that emphasized a cloistered life].
Source: Women and Religion in Medieval and Renaissance Italy.   Edited by Daniel Bornstein and Roberto Rusconi. Trans. by Margery J. Schneider .   University of Chicago Press, 1996. Magistra , 2., 1 (Summer 1996):  Pages 39 - 55. Originally published as "Chiara d'Assisi, Agnese e le prime consorelle: dalle 'Pauperes Dominae' di S. Damiano alle Clarisse'" in Mistiche e devote nell'Italia tardomedievale. Edited by Daniel Bornstein and Roberto Rusconi (Liguori Editore, 1992). Pages 3
Year of Publication: 1996.

27. Record Number: 1224
Author(s): Giangrosso, Patricia A.
Contributor(s):
Title : Weibliche Stimmen in Early German Translations of the "Regula Benedicti" [degree of feminization in three adaptations of the "Rule" for women's monasteries].
Source: Magistra , 2., 2 (Winter 1996):  Pages 70 - 91.
Year of Publication: 1996.

28. Record Number: 3584
Author(s): Lifshitz, Felice.
Contributor(s):
Title : Is Mother Superior? Towards a History of Feminine "Amtscharisma"
Source: Medieval Mothering.   Edited by John Carmi Parsons and Bonnie Wheeler .   Garland Publishing, 1996. Hagiographica: Rivista di agiografia e biografia della società internazionale per lo studio del Medioevo Latino/ Journal of Hagiography and Biography of Società Internazionale per lo studio del Medioevo Latino , 4., ( 1997):  Pages 117 - 138.
Year of Publication: 1996.

29. Record Number: 1218
Author(s): Spreckelmeyer, Antha.
Contributor(s):
Title : Reclaiming the "Wayward Nun": Thematic Similarities in Three Middle English Versions of the Benedictine Rule
Source: Magistra , 2., 1 (Summer 1996):  Pages 51 - 62.
Year of Publication: 1996.

30. Record Number: 1125
Author(s): Henderson, J. Frank.
Contributor(s):
Title : Feminizing the Rule of Benedict in Medieval England [study of five Middle English translations and one Latin version, examining changes from masculine language as well as feminization of such aspects of monastic life as clothing and the practice of charity]
Source: Magistra , 1., 1 (Summer 1995):  Pages 9 - 38.
Year of Publication: 1995.

31. Record Number: 506
Author(s): Ward, Jennifer C.
Contributor(s):
Title : Women and the Old English Benedictine "Rule": A Theory of Chaos and Masculine Incompetence [Seventh Biennial Meeting of the International Society of Anglo- Saxonists, "Old and New Ways in the Study of Anglo- Saxon Culture," Stanford University, August 6-12, 1995. Session 1].
Source: Old English Newsletter , 28., 3 (Spring 1995):
Year of Publication: 1995.

32. Record Number: 1133
Author(s): Crean, John E., Jr.
Contributor(s):
Title : Benedict in Berlin: Another Feminine Voice [close textual comparison of a German language translation ("Berlin Rule" at the Prussian State Library) with Benedict's Rule in order to analyze its use of feminine language].
Source: Magistra , 1., 1 (Summer 1995):  Pages 172 - 190.
Year of Publication: 1995.

33. Record Number: 1209
Author(s): Spreckelmeyer, Antha.
Contributor(s):
Title : Feminine Experience in the Nothern Metrical Version of the Benedictine Rule [differences in emphasis in the metrical translation indicate issues of concern for nuns' behavior].
Source: Magistra , 1., 2 (Winter 1995):  Pages 267 - 280.
Year of Publication: 1995.

34. Record Number: 5660
Author(s): Sensi, Mario.
Contributor(s):
Title : Chiara d'Assisi nell'Umbria del Quattrocento [use of the original rule of Saint Clare, long eclipsed by other versions, revived in the fifteenth century in Umbria; many houses of reformed Clares were affiliated with the Franciscan Observants, but it is difficult to correlate this with revived use of the primitive rule; veneration of Clare in Umbria included invocations against the plague].
Source: Collectanea Franciscana , 64., ( 1994):  Pages 215 - 239.
Year of Publication: 1994.

35. Record Number: 9775
Author(s): Miligi, Giuseppe.
Contributor(s):
Title : Francescanesimo al femminile: Chiara d’Assisi ed Eustochia da Messina [Franciscan hagiography described Francis as "another Christ" and Clare as "another Mary." These hagiographers saw Mary’s role as active, not passive. An early copy of Clare’s Rule ties her to Eustochia of Messina, an outstanding 15th century follower of that Rule. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Francescanesimo al femminile: Chiara d'Assisi ed Eustochia da Messina.   Edited by Giuseppe Miligi et al .   EDAS, 1994. Collectanea Franciscana , 64., ( 1994):  Pages 11 - 40.
Year of Publication: 1994.

36. Record Number: 5432
Author(s): Klueting, Edeltraud.
Contributor(s):
Title : Les Pouvoirs des abbesses dans les couvents de femmes de la congrégation de Bursfeld [the reformers from Bursfeld decided that Benedictine abbots and abbesses needed to have their powers restricted].
Source: Les Religieuses dans le Cloître et dans le Monde des Origines à Nos Jours. Actes du Deuxième Colloque International de C.E.R.C.O.R. Poitiers, 29 septembre-2 octobre 1988. .   Publications de l'Université de Sainte-Etienne, 1994. Magistra , 1., 1 (Summer 1995):  Pages 219 - 238.
Year of Publication: 1994.

37. Record Number: 11205
Author(s): Leyser, Conrad.
Contributor(s):
Title : Long-haired Kings and Short-haired Nuns: Writing on the Body in Caesarius of Arles [The rule of the convent of St. John’s, founded by Bishop Caesarius of Arles in 512, specifies that the nuns have short hair. Futhermore, the nuns’ hair must be no longer than the specific length of a certain mark written in the regula manuscripts themselves. This hair length mandate may have arisen out of a desire to distinguish people in monastic orders from the kings in Germaic cultures, who commonly wore long hair. Rather than being a misogynist requirement derived from Scriptural passages on women’s appearance, this hair rule encourages a monastic identification between men and women and builds a tightly-knight community of religious women that resists outside social pressures. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Studia Patristica , 24., ( 1993):  Pages 143 - 150. Papers presented at the Eleventh International Conference on Patristic Studies held in Oxford 1991. Historica, Theologica et Philosophica, Gnostica
Year of Publication: 1993.

38. Record Number: 11207
Author(s): Gillette, Gertrude, O. S. B.
Contributor(s):
Title : Radegund’s Monastery of Poitiers: the Rule and its Observance [When she founded her monastery, Radegund established a Rule which stated that a nun must not leave the monastery up to the time of her death. While the Rule was intended to limit the nuns’ contact with the outside world, the nuns actually had frequent interactions with outsiders. Daily life did not necessarily correspond to the Rule, and nuns could adapt their interpretation of the Rule to suit special circumstances or to serve their own personal motivations. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Studia Patristica , 25., ( 1993):  Pages 381 - 387. Papers presented at the Eleventh International Conference on Patristic Studies held in Oxford 1991. Biblica et Apocrypha, Orientalia, Ascetica
Year of Publication: 1993.

39. Record Number: 8700
Author(s): Feiss, Hugh, O.S.B.
Contributor(s):
Title : Care for the Text: A Twelfth-Century Glossed Rule of Benedict for Notre Dame de Saintes [The author examines a Latin copy of St. Benedict’s "Rule" belonging to the women’s monastery of Notre Dame in Saintes. Many of the Latin endings were changed to the feminine forms and extensive glosses were added to the prologue and first two chapters. The author suggests that the scribe/editor was a nun although there is no certain evidence. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: American Benedictine Review , 43., 1 (March 1992):  Pages 47 - 56.
Year of Publication: 1992.

40. Record Number: 10677
Author(s): Olsen, Ulla Sander.
Contributor(s):
Title : Work and Work Ethics in the Nunnery of Syon Abbey in the Fifteenth Century [The author examines the Brigittine Rule and additional legislation for the nuns of Syon for sections dealing with manual labor. Saint Bridget originally declared that all sisters must work and there would be no "conversae" or servant sisters. However, the first nun at Syon refused to honor this provision. At the dissolution of Syon there were four lay sisters to do the heavy work. The nuns spent their work time doing embroidery and copying manuscripts. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Medieval Mystical Tradition in England: Exeter Symposium , 5., ( 1992):  Pages 129 - 143.
Year of Publication: 1992.

41. Record Number: 10297
Author(s): Simmons, Loraine N.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Abbey Church at Fontevraud in the Later Twelfth Century: Anxiety, Authority and Architecture in the Female Spiritual Life [The article considers how Abbey of Fontevraud implemented spatial expressions of "proximity anxiety" prompted by the special needs of a dual-gender community. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Gesta 31, 2 (1992): 99-107. Link Info
Year of Publication: 1992.

42. Record Number: 8662
Author(s): Waddell, Chrysogonus, O.C.S.O.
Contributor(s):
Title : One Day in the Life of the Savigniac Nun: Jehanne de Deniscourt [The author describes the daily life of a nun at the priory of Les Blanches (one of a group of Cistercian abbeys founded near Savigny, France, in the twelfth century). The exact date the author imaginatively reconstructs is the Feast Day of Saint Cecilia (November 22) in the year 1232. The article offers detailed descriptions of all twenty articles of the rule of the nuns of Les Blanches, which establishes guidelines regarding such things as the age of novices, proper clothing and attire, kitchen duties, female servants, food provisions, and community income. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Cistercian Studies Quarterly , 26., 2 ( 1991):  Pages 134 - 151.
Year of Publication: 1991.

43. Record Number: 9530
Author(s): France, James.
Contributor(s):
Title : From Bernard to Bridget: Cistercian Contribution to a Unique Scandinavian Monastic Body
Source: Cîteaux: Revue d'Histoire Cistercienne , 42., ( 1991):  Pages 479 - 495.
Year of Publication: 1991.

44. Record Number: 8651
Author(s): Papi, Anna Benvenuti.
Contributor(s):
Title : Forme comunitarie [The Franciscan third order originated as a para-monastic status for penitent women. It became, in the fifteenth century, assimilated to a monastic model. The popes permitted common dwellings and conceded privileges, but they expected strict monastic enclosure. Some of the Tuscan houses of tertiaries were tied to convents of the Franciscan observant movement. Appendix: pp. 589-592 Rule of the Third Order, from MS Palatino 118 in the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale, Florence. Originally printed as "Le forme comunitarie della penitenza femminile francescana: Schede per un censimento toscano," in Prime manifestazioni di vita comunitaria maschile e femminile nel movimento francescano della penitenza: Atti del convegno di studi francescani, Assisi 30 giugno-2 luglio 1981, edited by R. Pazzelli and L. Temperini (Commissione Storica Internazionale T.O.R., 1982). Pages 389-449. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: In castro poenitentiae: santità e società femminile nell’Italia medievali. Anna Benvenuti Papi .   Herder, 1990. Traditio , 45., ( 1990):  Pages 531 - 592. Originally printed as "Le forme comunitarie della penitenza femminile francescana: Schede per un censimento toscano," in Prime manifestazioni di vita comunitaria maschile e femminile nel movimento francescano della penitenza: Atti del convegno di studi fr
Year of Publication: 1990.

45. Record Number: 8652
Author(s): Papi, Anna Benvenuti.
Contributor(s):
Title : Donne religiose nella Firenze del Due-Trecento [The calling of Florentine recluses was grounded in the hermit tradition, but their lives came to be regulated according to monastic norms. The hermit ideal was rural, but these women were urban. Communities of recluses could come into conflict with local ecclesiastical authorities, but they often had important lay patrons. Marginal women, including widows and ex-prostitutes, often found homes in communities of penitents. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: In castro poenitentiae: santità e società femminile nell’Italia medievali. Anna Benvenuti Papi .   Herder, 1990. Traditio , 45., ( 1990):  Pages 593 - 634. Originally printed as "Donne religiose nella Firenze del Due-Trecento: Appunti per una ricerca in corso," in Le mouvement confraternel au Moyen Âge: France, Suisse, Italie: Actes de la table ronde, Lausanne 9-11 mai 1985 (Droz, 1987). Pages 41-82.
Year of Publication: 1990.

46. Record Number: 12696
Author(s): Schmitt, Miriam.
Contributor(s):
Title : Freed to Run with Expanded Heart: The Writings of Gertrud of Helfta and the Rule of Benedict [In her writings, Helfta interprets liberty of heart as a personal passage from inner bondage to spiritual freedom. She also exemplifies the qualities of a liberated heart which Benedict outlines in his regula. The author equates Gertrude's "libertas cordis" (liberated heart in mystical love) is equated with Benedict's "cor dilatatus" (heart expanded by ineffable love). Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Cistercian Studies , 25., 2 ( 1990):  Pages 220 - 232.
Year of Publication: 1990.

47. Record Number: 12693
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Flaws in the Golden Bowl: Gender and Spiritual Formation in the Twelfth Century [In twelfth century Western Europe, religious writers debated whether arrangements for men and for women in religious life were meant to be identical, equal, or separate. While works on religious formation and spiritual growth can present monastic values as gender neutral and some writings (like Abelard's letters to Heloise) purport to praise the virtues of women, misogyny is nonetheless pervasive in monastic writings (women are aligned with carnality, loquacity, and curiosity). Moreover, gender plays an important role in differentiating the importance of chastity for men and for women, and gender profoundly affects how communal life and spiritual growth are represented. The Appendix offers a list of religious literature of formation produced between 1075 and 1225. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Traditio , 45., ( 1990):  Pages 111 - 146. Republished in From Virile Woman to WomanChrist: Studies in Medieval Religion and Literature. By Barbara Newman. Middle Ages Series. University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995. Pages 19-45
Year of Publication: 1990.

48. Record Number: 12673
Author(s): Godfrey, Aaron W.
Contributor(s):
Title : Rules and Regulation: Monasticism and Chastity [The author briefly surviews early medieval monastic rules for monks concerning the avoidance of sexual behavior as well as sexual thoughts. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Homo Carnalis: The Carnal Aspect of Medieval Human Life.   Edited by Helen Rodite Lemay Acta .   Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, State University of New York at Binghamton, 1990. Traditio , 45., ( 1990):  Pages 45 - 57. Papers presented at a conference held at the State University of New York at Stony Brook in 1987
Year of Publication: 1990.