Feminae: Medieval Women and Gender Index


221 Record(s) Found in our database

Search Results

1. Record Number: 36620
Author(s): Ward, Jennifer
Contributor(s):
Title : Elizabeth de Burgh, Lady of Clare (1295-1360): Household and Other Records
Source: Elizabeth de Burgh, Lady of Clare (1295-1360): Household and Other Records. Jennifer Ward .   Boydell Press, 2014.  Pages 1 - 154.
Year of Publication: 2014.

2. Record Number: 35778
Author(s): Krause, Kathy M.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Charters of the Thirteenth-Century Inheriting Countesses of Ponthieu
Source: Haskins Society Journal , 25., ( 2013):  Pages 223 - 243.
Year of Publication: 2013.

3. Record Number: 28445
Author(s): Kostick, Conor.
Contributor(s):
Title : Eleanor of Aquitaine and the Women of the Second Crusade
Source: Medieval Italy, Medieval and Early Modern Women: Essays in Honour of Christine Meek.   Edited by Conor Kostick .   Four Courts Press, 2010. Haskins Society Journal , 25., ( 2013):  Pages 195 - 205.
Year of Publication: 2010.

4. Record Number: 29907
Author(s): Berman, Constance Hoffman
Contributor(s):
Title : Two Medieval Women’s Property and Religious Benefactions in France: Eleanor of Vermandois and Blanche of Castile
Source: Viator , 41., 2 ( 2010):  Pages 151 - 182.
Year of Publication: 2010.

5. Record Number: 24050
Author(s): Smith, Kathryn A.
Contributor(s):
Title : Book, Body, and the Construction of Self in the Taymouth Hours [The author analyzes miniatures and bas de page illustrations in a book of hours made for an English royal woman in the 1330s. Smith finds evidence of models of appropriate devout behavior for the laity. The portrait of the book owner at prayer during mass shows her with hands extended and the book of hours at her side. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: Negotiating Community and Difference in Medieval Europe: Gender, Power, Patronage, and the Authority of Religion in Latin Christendom.   Edited by Katherine Allen Smith and Scott Wells Studies in the History of Christian Traditions .   Brill, 2009. Viator , 41., 2 ( 2010):  Pages 173 - 204.
Year of Publication: 2009.

6. Record Number: 24048
Author(s): Berman, Constance Hoffman
Contributor(s):
Title : Noble Women's Power as Reflected in the Foundations of Cistercian Houses for Nuns in Thirteenth-Century Northern France: Port-Royal, les Clairets, Moncey, Lieu and Eau-lez-Chartres [The author examines five Cistercian female houses supported by Matilda of Brunswick, the Countess of the Perche; Matilda of Garlande, Lady of Marly; and Isabelle, Countess of Chartres with the help of her daughter, Matilda of Amboise. Berman argues that these actions reveal the power and authority women exercised and need to be incorporated into the historical narrative. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: Negotiating Community and Difference in Medieval Europe: Gender, Power, Patronage, and the Authority of Religion in Latin Christendom.   Edited by Katherine Allen Smith and Scott Wells Studies in the History of Christian Traditions .   Brill, 2009. Viator , 41., 2 ( 2010):  Pages 137 - 149.
Year of Publication: 2009.

7. Record Number: 19950
Author(s): Jordan, Erin L.
Contributor(s):
Title : The "Abduction" of Ida of Boulogne: Assessing Women's Agency in Thirteenth-Century France
Source: French Historical Studies , 30., 1 (Winter 2007):  Pages 1 - 20.
Year of Publication: 2007.

8. Record Number: 20733
Author(s): Harris, Barbara J.
Contributor(s):
Title : Aristocratic and Gentry Women, 1460-1640
Source: History Compass , 4., 4 ( 2006):  Pages 668 - 686.
Year of Publication: 2006.

9. Record Number: 13674
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Gendering Viragos: Medieval Perceptions of Powerful Women [The author explores the medieval concept of the virago, a lordly woman who exercised authoritative powers. Case studies include Adelaide, duchess of Turin; Gunhild, sister of Swein, the Danish king of England; Bertrada of Montfort, wife of King Louis VI; and Adela, countess of Blois. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Studies on Medieval and Early Modern Women 4: Victims or Viragos?   Edited by Christine Meek and Catherine Lawless .   Four Courts Press, 2005. History Compass , 4., 4 ( 2006):  Pages 17 - 38.
Year of Publication: 2005.

10. Record Number: 13676
Author(s): Healy, Patrick.
Contributor(s):
Title : Merito nominetur virago: Matilda of Tuscany in the Polemics of the Investiture Contest [The author explores Matilda's importance as an armed protector of Pope Gregory VII and the reform movement as well as her role as an inspiration for Bible exegesis and other polemics in the Gregorian versus royalist struggle. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Studies on Medieval and Early Modern Women 4: Victims or Viragos?   Edited by Christine Meek and Catherine Lawless .   Four Courts Press, 2005. History Compass , 4., 4 ( 2006):  Pages 49 - 56.
Year of Publication: 2005.

11. Record Number: 12610
Author(s): Ashley, Kathleen.
Contributor(s):
Title : Material and Symbolic Gift-Giving: Clothes in English and French Wills [The practice of bequeathing clothing to friends, relatives, and others in one’s will was common in late medieval and Early Modern England and France. Major differences in how clothing is dispensed in the wills arise not when one compares the gender of particular testators but the socioeconomic class of the individual. Among lower class people, items of clothing function as commodities (objects of use or value to be passed along), but for bourgeois and aristocratic people clothing carries both material and symbolic value. In these social classes, giving clothing can signify a sentimental attachment to a person or it can constitute a spiritual act of almsgiving. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Medieval Fabrications: Dress, Textiles, Clothwork, and Other Cultural Imaginings.   Edited by E. Jane Burns .   Palgrave, 2004. Nottingham Medieval Studies , 48., ( 2004):  Pages 137 - 146.
Year of Publication: 2004.

12. Record Number: 14750
Author(s): Shopkow, Leah.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Narrative Constructions of the Famous (or Infamous) and Fearsome Virago, Beatrice of Bourbourg [The author analyzes two representations of Beatrice, inheritor of the castellany of Bourbourg in Flanders and wife of the ruler of the county of Guines. Both authors saw her as ambitious and proud, but Lambert of Ardre saw this as fitting. Futhermore he praised Beatrice for her good influence on her morally weak husband. In contrast William of Andres blamed her for everything that went wrong including things done by her husband and son. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Historical Reflections/ Reflexions historiques , 30., 1 (Spring 2004):  Pages 55 - 71.
Year of Publication: 2004.

13. Record Number: 10535
Author(s): Clanchy, Michael.
Contributor(s):
Title : Images of Ladies with Prayer Books: What Do They Signify? [The author analyzes a few images including those of Eleanor of Aquitaine and Yolande of Soissons. He is interested particularly in the meaning of private prayer for these women and the influence that their devotion to Mary had on the use of psalters and books of hours. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: The church and the book: papers read at the 2000 Summer Meeting and the 2001 Winter Meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society.   Edited by R. N. Swanson Studies in Church History, 38.  2004. Historical Reflections/ Reflexions historiques , 30., 1 (Spring 2004):  Pages 106 - 122.
Year of Publication: 2004.

14. Record Number: 14749
Author(s): Doyle, Kara.
Contributor(s):
Title : Narratizing Marie of Ponthieu [The author analyzes three texts related to the life of Marie, countess of Ponthieu. She was heir to her father's holdings of Ponthieu but her husband's rebellion against the French king, Philippe Auguste, resulted in the forfeiture of her inheritance. Marie negotiated a settlement with Louis VIII, Philippe Auguste's successor. The three texts analyzed are: 1) the legal agreement between Marie and Lous VIII restoring her land and the inheritance rights to her children; 2) the "Roman de la Violette" by Gerbert de Montreuil in which Marie is acknowledged as patron; and the anonymous "Fille de comte de Ponthieu" in which the heroine's resemblance to Marie is less direct. Significantly all three texts downplay women's agency and do not portray the woman as holding land. Evidence suggests that Marie took direct action to regain her family's lands and privileges Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Historical Reflections/ Reflexions historiques , 30., 1 (Spring 2004):  Pages 29 - 54.
Year of Publication: 2004.

15. Record Number: 11427
Author(s): Parker, Holt N.
Contributor(s):
Title : Women and Humanism: Nine Factors for the Woman Learning
Source: Viator , 35., ( 2004):  Pages 581 - 616.
Year of Publication: 2004.

16. Record Number: 10982
Author(s): Ewan, Elizabeth.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Dangers of Manly Women: Late Medieval Perceptions of Female Heroism in Scotland's Second War of Independence [The author examines accounts of two noble women in Scottish histories. Lady Seton urged her husband to resist the English, even at the cost of her hostage son's life. Agnes, countess of Dunbar, held her castle and defied the English attackers repeatedly. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Woman and the Feminine in Medieval and Early Modern Scottish Writing.   Edited by Sarah M. Dunnigan, C. Marie Harker, and Evelyn S. Newlyn .   Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. Viator , 35., ( 2004):  Pages 3 - 18.
Year of Publication: 2004.

17. Record Number: 14563
Author(s): Claire, Taylor.
Contributor(s):
Title : Review- Article [The author focuses on the theme of primary sources in discussing three recent books: Bruce L. Venarde's "Robert of Arbrissel: A Medieval Religious Life," "Love, Sex, and Marriage in the Middle Ages: A Sourcebook" edited by Conor McCarthy, and Susan John's "Noblewomen, Aristocracy, and Power in the Twelfth-Century Anglo-Norman Realm." Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Nottingham Medieval Studies , 48., ( 2004):  Pages 245 - 251.
Year of Publication: 2004.

18. Record Number: 8571
Author(s): Ross, James
Contributor(s):
Title : Seditious Activities: The Conspiracy of Maud de Vere, Countess of Oxford, 1403-4 [In 1403-04 Maud de Vere, dowager countess of Oxford, involved herself in an attempt to restore "Richard II" (actually an impostor) to the English throne. There is no obvious reason for this conspiracy except belief in the pseudo-Richard as true king. Maud was pardoned on the request of Queen Joan, the wife of Henry IV. This may have been an effort by Henry to place his new wife in high relief as a source of pardons. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Fifteenth Century , 3., ( 2003):  Pages 25 - 41. Thematic issue: Authority and Subversion
Year of Publication: 2003.

19. Record Number: 9514
Author(s): Smith, Julia M. H.
Contributor(s):
Title : Einhard: The Sinner and the Saints (Read 15 March 2002)
Source: Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. Sixth Series , 13., ( 2003):  Pages 55 - 77.
Year of Publication: 2003.

20. Record Number: 10617
Author(s): Keen, Maurice.
Contributor(s):
Title : Heraldry and the Medieval Gentlewoman [The author provides a brief overview of the importance of women's descent in heraldic arms in medieval England. While the cases of noble women predominate, Keen also discusses gentry families like the Pastons. Note that the article is written for a general audience and does not include footnotes. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: History Today , 53., 3 (March 2003):  Pages 21 - 27.
Year of Publication: 2003.

21. Record Number: 11022
Author(s): Johnston, Mark.
Contributor(s):
Title : Gender as Conduct in the Courtesy Guides for Aristocratic Boys and Girls of Amanieu de Sescás [Amanieu de Sescás wrote his poems of advice for young women and young men in the early 1290s. Johnston argues that while a few behaviors are gender specific, the poet generally emphasizes a common ethic of courtliness for nobles of both sexes. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Essays in Medieval Studies (Full Text via Project Muse) 20 (2003): 75-84. Link Info
Year of Publication: 2003.

22. Record Number: 11946
Author(s): DeAragon, RáGena C.
Contributor(s):
Title : Wife, Widow, and Mother: Some Comparisons between Eleanor of Aquitaine and Noblewomen of the Anglo-Norman and Angevin World [The author compares life cycle events for Eleanor of Aquitaine to those of Anglo-Norman and Angevin countesses between 1070 and 1230. The author briefly considers childhood, marriage, childbearing, parenting, widowhood, remarriage, ecclesiastical patrona
Source: Eleanor of Aquitaine: Lord and Lady.   Edited by Bonnie Wheeler and John Carmi Parsons The New Middle Ages .   Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.  Pages 97 - 113.
Year of Publication: 2003.

23. Record Number: 8063
Author(s): McNamara, Jo Ann.
Contributor(s):
Title : Women and Power through the Family Revisited
Source: Gendering the Master Narrative: Women and Power in the Middle Ages.   Edited by Mary C. Erler and Maryanne Kowaleski .   Cornell University Press, 2003.  Pages 17 - 30.
Year of Publication: 2003.

24. Record Number: 8710
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : The Gender of Lordly Women: The Case of Adela of Blois [The author argues that scholars who view medieval women rulers as "honorary men" are wrong. Instead medieval understandings of gender and lordship situated ruling women like Adela within royal and noble families. While acknowledging that they sometimes needed to act like men, it did not negate their femininity since they fulfilled important roles as daughters, wives, and mothers. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Studies on Medieval and Early Modern Women: Pawns or Players?   Edited by Christine Meek and Catherine Lawless .   Four Courts Press, 2003.  Pages 90 - 110.
Year of Publication: 2003.

25. Record Number: 8071
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Public Exposure? Consorts and Ritual in Late Medieval Europe: The Example of the Entrance of the Dogaresse of Venice [The author argues that the ceremonial processions of the wives of the new doges both contained and empowered these women. The ceremonies had something in common with coronation rites and with wedding ceremonies. The peculiar conditions governing the doge's political power meant that dynastic succession (and his consort's fertility) were not issues of concern. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Gendering the Master Narrative: Women and Power in the Middle Ages.   Edited by Mary C. Erler and Maryanne Kowaleski .   Cornell University Press, 2003.  Pages 174 - 189.
Year of Publication: 2003.

26. Record Number: 8708
Author(s): Kenny, Gillian.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Power of Dower: The Importance of Dower in the Lives of Medieval Women in Ireland [The author argues that the financial resources made available to widows from their dowers transformed their lives. They took over many of their husbands' roles including bringing suits in court and donating to local religious institutions. Both the widows and their heirs sometimes had difficulties accustoming themselves to the changes in power. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Studies on Medieval and Early Modern Women: Pawns or Players?   Edited by Christine Meek and Catherine Lawless .   Four Courts Press, 2003.  Pages 59 - 74.
Year of Publication: 2003.

27. Record Number: 12880
Author(s): Michalski, Sergiusz.
Contributor(s):
Title : Venus as Semiramis: A New Interpretation of the Central Figure of Botticelli's "Primavera"
Source: Artibus et Historiae , 48., ( 2003):  Pages 213 - 222.
Year of Publication: 2003.

28. Record Number: 11824
Author(s): Crawford, Sally.
Contributor(s):
Title : Anglo-Saxon Women, Furnished Burial, and the Church [The author discusses the possible meanings of women's burials during the Conversion Period in Anglo-Saxon England. Scholars have attributed Christian or non-Christian beliefs to the locations of burials (churchyards, barrows, and ancestral graveyards), presence or absence of grave goods, and inclusion of seemingly Christian symbols like cruciform jewellry. The need for high status families to display their prestige and wealth through an ostentatious burial of a female member is also an important consideration. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Women and Religion in Medieval England.   Edited by Diana Wood .   Oxbow Books, 2003. Artibus et Historiae , 48., ( 2003):  Pages 1 - 12.
Year of Publication: 2003.

29. Record Number: 11829
Author(s): Archer, Rowena.
Contributor(s):
Title : Piety in Question: Noblewomen and Religion in the Later Middle Ages [The author argues that historians have relied on the lives of a few exceptional women to construct a history of noble women's religiosity. In many cases religious observances were conventional and the preoccupations of a worldly life took precedence. The author briefly discusses such topics as devotional literature, marriage and liaisons forbidden by the church, widowhood, pilgrimage, almsgiving, and fouding of religious institutions. Individuals profiled include Cecily Neville, Duchess of York, and Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Women and Religion in Medieval England.   Edited by Diana Wood .   Oxbow Books, 2003. Artibus et Historiae , 48., ( 2003):  Pages 118 - 140.
Year of Publication: 2003.

30. Record Number: 7871
Author(s): Backhouse, Janet.
Contributor(s):
Title : A Further Illuminated Devotional Book for the Use of Lady Margaret Beaufort [The author analyzes a recently identified manuscript that was made for Margaret Beaufort in Italy at the order of Giovanni Gigli, an Italian cleric who was made Bishop of Worcester in 1497. The author suggests that the gift commemorated the papal bull in 1494 that sanctioned the observation of the Feast of the Name of Jesus by Margaret Beaufort and others. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Reading Texts and Images: Essays on Medieval and Renaissance Art and Patronage in Honour of Margaret M. Manion.   Edited by Bernard J. Muir .   University of Exeter Press, 2002. Byzantine Studies Conference. Abstracts of Papers , 28., ( 2002):  Pages 221 - 235.
Year of Publication: 2002.

31. Record Number: 8806
Author(s): Parsons, John Carmi.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Medieval Aristocratic Teenaged Female: Adolescent or Adult? [The author argues that there was a more "fluid scale of ages" for women than for men, particularly involving royalty and the nobility. Young women could act decisively and authoritatively when helping their husbands or protecting their children. Parsons points to the case of Isabelle of Hainaut who at fourteen performed a dramatic public prayer to win public support and prevent her husband's planned divorce. Elizabeth Plantagenet, Countess of Holland, at fiften years enlisted the help of the Hague's burgers to rescue her young husband who had been kidnapped by the regent. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: The Premodern Teenager: Youth in Society, 1150-1650.   Edited by Konrad Eisenbichler .   Publications of the Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies, Essays and Studies, 1. Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies, 2002. Byzantine Studies Conference. Abstracts of Papers , 28., ( 2002):  Pages 311 - 321.
Year of Publication: 2002.

32. Record Number: 10532
Author(s): McLennan, Graham.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Lady of Caesarea: A Colonist in Outremer
Source: Our Medieval Heritage: Essays in Honour of John Tillotson for His 60th Birthday.   Edited by Linda Rasmussen, Valerie Spear, and Dianne Tillotson .   Merton Priory Press, 2002. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. Sixth Series , 13., ( 2003):  Pages 172 - 184.
Year of Publication: 2002.

33. Record Number: 7250
Author(s): Golden, Judith K.
Contributor(s):
Title : Images of Instruction, Marie de Bretagne, and the Life of St. Eustace as Illustrated in British Library Ms. Egerton 745 [The author argues that Egerton 745 was commissioned by Marie de Bretagne, daughter of a duke of Brittany and granddaughter of a king and queen of England (hence the saints' lives included for two Breton saints and Edward the Confessor). She had the manuscript prepared for her son, choosing to emphasize role models, especially Saint Eustace, who were good husbands, fathers, and Christians. The Appendix lists and describes twenty-two works of art that represent the cycle of St. Eustace's life. Also included is a table that charts the various episodes represented in the twenty-two art works. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Insights and Interpretations: Studies in Celebrations of the Eighty-Fifth Anniversary of the Index of Christian Art.   Edited by Colum Hourihane .   Index of Christian Art, Department of Art and Archaeology, Princeton University in association with Princeton University Press, 2002. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. Sixth Series , 13., ( 2003):  Pages 60 - 84.
Year of Publication: 2002.

34. Record Number: 8283
Author(s): Bratsch-Prince, Dawn
Contributor(s):
Title : Pawn or Player? Violant of Bar and the Game of Matrimonial Politics in the Crown of Aragon (1380-1396) [The author argues that Violant of Bar actively participated in arranging politically advantageous marriages for her children as well as for members of her court. The Appendix presents the Catalan texts along with English translations of ten of her letters concerning some of her marriage arrangements. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Marriage and Sexuality in Medieval and Early Modern Iberia. Hispanic Issues, Volume 26.   Edited by Eukene Lacarra Lanz .   Routledge, 2002. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. Sixth Series , 13., ( 2003):  Pages 59 - 89.
Year of Publication: 2002.

35. Record Number: 9331
Author(s): Monahan, Jennifer.
Contributor(s):
Title : Reading Matilda: The Self-Fashioning of a Duchess [The author examines how Matilda, Countess of Tuscany, identified herself in documents in order to understand what kind of image she fashioned for herself as a female ruler. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Essays in Medieval Studies (Full Text via Project Muse) 19 (2002): 1-13. Link Info
Year of Publication: 2002.

36. Record Number: 8441
Author(s): Gradowicz-Pancer, Nira.
Contributor(s):
Title : De-gendering Female Violence: Merovingian Female Honour as an "Exchange of Violence"
Source: Early Medieval Europe , 11., 1 ( 2002):  Pages 1 - 18.
Year of Publication: 2002.

37. Record Number: 10786
Author(s): Barefield, Laura.
Contributor(s):
Title : Lineage and Women's Patronage: Mary of Woodstock and Nicholas Trevet's "Les Cronicles" [The author explores Mary of Woodstock's impact as patron of a history that regularly took account of women in its listings of lineage. In this way, the author argues, aristocratic women displayed their power and preserved a record for their female descendants. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Medieval Feminist Forum , 33., (Spring 2002):  Pages 21 - 30.
Year of Publication: 2002.

38. Record Number: 9359
Author(s): Mladjov, Ian S. R.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Case of Iusta Grata Honoria and Imperial Women in Late Antiquity
Source: Byzantine Studies Conference. Abstracts of Papers , 28., ( 2002):  Pages 25 - 27.
Year of Publication: 2002.

39. Record Number: 7816
Author(s): Johns, Susan M.
Contributor(s):
Title : Poetry and Prayer: Women and Politics of Spiritual Relationships in the Early Twelfth Century
Source: European Review of History , 8., 1 ( 2001):  Pages 7 - 22.
Year of Publication: 2001.

40. Record Number: 10210
Author(s): Talbot, Alice-Mary.
Contributor(s):
Title : Building Activity in Constantinople under Andronikos II: The Role of Women Patrons in the Construction and Restoration of Monasteries [The author notes the substantial number of both female patrons and women's monasteries during this period. The patrons are connected to the royal family by blood or marriage. Individuals profiled include Theodora Raoulaina, Maria Palaiologina, Theodora Synadene, Irene Choumnaina Palaiologina, and Maria Doukaina Komnene Branaina Palaiologina. The women were all widows at the time of their donations and gave substantial gifts for a monastery to which they could retire and where they could bury their family members. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Byzantine Constantinople: Monuments, Topography, and Everyday Life.   Edited by Nevra Necipoglu. The Medieval Mediterranean: Peoples, Economies, and Cultures, 400-1453, Volume 33 Medieval Mediterranean, 33.   Brill, 2001. European Review of History , 8., 1 ( 2001):  Pages 329 - 343.
Year of Publication: 2001.

41. Record Number: 5782
Author(s): Innes, Matthew.
Contributor(s):
Title : Keeping It in the Family: Women and Aristocratic Memory, 700- 1200
Source: Medieval Memories: Men, Women, and the Past, 700-1300.   Edited by Elisabeth van Houts .   Women and Men in History Series. Longman, 2001. Byzantine Studies Conference. Abstracts of Papers , 28., ( 2002):  Pages 17 - 35.
Year of Publication: 2001.

42. Record Number: 8547
Author(s): Marino, Nancy F.
Contributor(s):
Title : How Portuguese "Damas" Scandalized the Court of Enrique IV of Castile [The young women who accompanied the Portuguese princess Juana to the Castilian court caused a great stir. They dressed provocatively, were sexually aggressive, and sometimes wore men's clothing and carried weapons. Several of them became the mistresses of powerful men in the kingdom. When the advisors to Isabella I, la Catolica, Enrique's successor, wished to discredit the king, they used the Portuguese "damas" as another instance of his immorality. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Essays in Medieval Studies (Full Text via Project Muse) 18 (2001): 43-52 Link Info
Year of Publication: 2001.

43. Record Number: 8956
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Women and the Circulation of Books [The author argues that patronage has been regarded as the dominant, if not exclusive, means by which people acquired books at the French court. However, there were other ways that women were more likely to have books including inheritance, wedding presents, and New Year's Day gifts. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Journal of the Early Book Society for the Study of Manuscripts and Printing History , 4., ( 2001):  Pages 9 - 31. Issue Title: Women and Book Culture in Late Medieval and Early Modern France
Year of Publication: 2001.

44. Record Number: 5998
Author(s): Stoertz, Fiona Harris.
Contributor(s):
Title : Young Women in France and England, 1050- 1300
Source: Journal of Women's History (Full Text via Project Muse) 12, 4 (Winter 2001): 22-46. Link Info
Year of Publication: 2001.

45. Record Number: 6851
Author(s): Narbona-Cárceles, María.
Contributor(s):
Title : Woman at Court: A Prosopographic Study of the Court of Carlos III of Navarre (1387-1425) [The appendix lists the 364 women investigated along with their positions at court. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Medieval Prosopography , 22., ( 2001):  Pages 31 - 64.
Year of Publication: 2001.

46. Record Number: 6973
Author(s): McCarthy, Terence.
Contributor(s):
Title : Qui était Daniélis [The author argues that the references to Daniélis in two Greek texts suggest that she was a wealthy, noblewoman who had connections to Emperor Basil I. The Appendix presents excerpts in Greek from the two texts in which Daniélis is mentioned, "Theophanes Continuatus" and "Synopsis Historion" by John Skylitzes. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Byzantion , 71., 1 ( 2001):  Pages 98 - 109.
Year of Publication: 2001.

47. Record Number: 8728
Author(s): King, Andy.
Contributor(s):
Title : Jack Le Irish and the Abduction of Lady Clifford, November 1315: The Heiress and the Irishman [The author argues that Jack Le Irish was an Anglo-Irish soldier in service to Edward II who set his eyes on too high a prize (Maud de Clifford and her estates) for a mere man-at-arms. His methods, abduction and forced marriage, were used with many heiresses, but in this case Maud's relatives used their influence to have her rescued. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: Northern History , 38., 2 (September 2001):  Pages 187 - 195.
Year of Publication: 2001.

48. Record Number: 6742
Author(s): Schein, Sylvia.
Contributor(s):
Title : Women in Medieval Colonial Society: The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem in the Twelfth Century [The author argues that noble and royal women in the Crusader Kingdom had a better legal status and more freedom of action than women in Europe because the conditions of constant war often overruled traditional gender roles. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Gendering the Crusades.   Edited by Susan B. Edgington and Sarah Lambert .   University of Wales Press, 2001. Northern History , 38., 2 (September 2001):  Pages 140 - 153.
Year of Publication: 2001.

49. Record Number: 6750
Author(s): Harris, Barbara J.
Contributor(s):
Title : Space, Time, and the Power of Aristocratic Wives in Yorkist and Early Tudor England, 1450-1550 [The author argues that the stages of life that noble wives generally moved through were complex, both in terms of their increasing responsibilities and the spaces in which they lived and to which they traveled].
Source: Time, Space, and Women's Lives in Early Modern Europe.   Edited by Anne Jackson Schutte, Thomas Kuehn, and Silvana Seidel Menchi Sixteenth Century Essays and Studies, 57.   Truman State University Press, 2001. Northern History , 38., 2 (September 2001):  Pages 245 - 264.
Year of Publication: 2001.

50. Record Number: 6237
Author(s): Kohl, Benjamin G.
Contributor(s):
Title : Fina da Carrara, née Buzzacarini: Consort, Mother, and Patron of Art in Trecento Padua [the author provides some information about Fina's family, the Buzzacarini, and about the Carrara including the four children that Fina bore; Fina's patronage activities concern her tomb in the Baptistery with frescoes by Giusto de'Menabuoi; the author notes the portraits of Fina represented there, not only the donor portrait but the representation of Fina and her three daughters as onlookers at the birth of John the Baptist].
Source: Beyond Isabella: Secular Women Patrons of Art in Renaissance Italy.   Edited by Sheryl E. Reiss and David G. Wilkins .   Sixteenth Century Essays and Studies, Volume 54. Truman State University Press, 2001. Northern History , 38., 2 (September 2001):  Pages 19 - 35.
Year of Publication: 2001.

51. Record Number: 6666
Author(s): Hilles, Carroll.
Contributor(s):
Title : Gender and Politics in Osbern Bokenham's Legendary [the author argues that Bokenham's works advance the claim of Richard, duke of York, for the throne; not only does Bokenham question Lancastrian political hegemony, in part by denying the authority of the literature patronized by the court, but also "Bokenham strategically deploys 'woman' as signifier of privacy, piety, and humility to develop a language of political dissent which anticipates the tactics of later Yorkist propaganda." (page 209)].
Source: New Medieval Literatures , 4., ( 2001):  Pages 189 - 212.
Year of Publication: 2001.

52. Record Number: 4673
Author(s): Pasztor, Edith.
Contributor(s):
Title : Filippa Mareri e Chiara d'Assisi [Filippa Mareri, a noblewoman, tried being a bride of Christ in her parents' castle, and then she became an anchoress. Eventually she and her followers became Poor Clares. Unlike Clare, Filippa did not know Francis, and she acted more as a dominant lady and less as a sister to her nuns, as Clare had done].
Source: Donne e sante: Studi sulla religiosità femminile nel Medio Evo. Edith Pasztor .   Edizioni Studium, 2000. Renaissance studies : journal of the Society for Renaissance Studies , 14., 3 (September 2000):  Pages 173 - 196. Earlier published in Studies in Church History 27 (1990): 53-78.
Year of Publication: 2000.

53. Record Number: 5448
Author(s): Bridgeman, Jane.
Contributor(s):
Title : Pagare le pompe: Why Quattrocento Sumptuary Laws Did Not Work [the author argues that given the very high costs for fabric, especially luxury fabrics, sumptuary laws were intended as a supplementary taxation on the wealthy; instead of forbidding costly attire, the system gave those of high status the opportunity to dress opulently by paying fines].
Source: Women in Italian Renaissance Culture and Society.   Edited by Letizia Panizza .   European Humanities Research Centre, University of Oxford, 2000. European Review of History , 8., 1 ( 2001):  Pages 209 - 226.
Year of Publication: 2000.

54. Record Number: 5444
Author(s): Primhak, Victoria.
Contributor(s):
Title : Benedictine Communities in Venetian Society: The Convent of S. Zaccaria [S. Zaccaria was a conventual convent where the nuns did not observe "clausura" and had use of their private incomes; the nuns were able to resist reform because the convent was one of the oldest and most prestigious in the city and welcomed the daughters
Source: Women in Italian Renaissance Culture and Society.   Edited by Letizia Panizza .   European Humanities Research Centre, University of Oxford, 2000. European Review of History , 8., 1 ( 2001):  Pages 92 - 104.
Year of Publication: 2000.

55. Record Number: 16570
Author(s): Wilkinson, Louise.
Contributor(s):
Title : Pawn and Political Player: Observations on the Life of a Thirteenth-Century Countess
Source: Historical Research , 73., 181 (June 2000):  Pages 105 - 123.
Year of Publication: 2000.

56. Record Number: 4872
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : An Abbess and a Painter: Emilia Pannocchieschi d'Elci and a Fresco From the Circle of Simone Martini
Source: Renaissance studies : journal of the Society for Renaissance Studies , 14., 3 (September 2000):  Pages 273 - 300.
Year of Publication: 2000.

57. Record Number: 4468
Author(s): Saunders, Corinne.
Contributor(s):
Title : A Matter of Consent: Middle English Romance and the Law of "Raptus"
Source: Medieval Women and the Law.   Edited by Noël James Menuge .   Boydell Press, 2000. Renaissance studies : journal of the Society for Renaissance Studies , 14., 3 (September 2000):  Pages 105 - 124.
Year of Publication: 2000.

58. Record Number: 5441
Author(s): Welch, Evelyn S.
Contributor(s):
Title : Women as Patrons and Clients in the Courts of Quattrocento Italy [The author examines cases of "clientelismo" in Italian courts involving duchesses and their household staff in relationships with groups ranging from clients to religious houses].
Source: Women in Italian Renaissance Culture and Society.   Edited by Letizia Panizza .   European Humanities Research Centre, University of Oxford, 2000. Renaissance studies : journal of the Society for Renaissance Studies , 14., 3 (September 2000):  Pages 18 - 34.
Year of Publication: 2000.

59. Record Number: 4463
Author(s): Thompson, Victoria.
Contributor(s):
Title : Women, Power, and Protection in Tenth- and Eleventh-Century England [The author briefly explores Old English texts which present women's voices in order to determine whether their power was real or merely rhetorical].
Source: Medieval Women and the Law.   Edited by Noël James Menuge .   Boydell Press, 2000. Renaissance studies : journal of the Society for Renaissance Studies , 14., 3 (September 2000):  Pages 1 - 17.
Year of Publication: 2000.

60. Record Number: 3778
Author(s): Evergates, Theodore.
Contributor(s):
Title : Aristocratic Women in the County of Champagne [The author explores three roles of noble women in Champagne: as countesses, as married women, and as nuns].
Source: Aristocratic Women in Medieval France.   Edited by Theodore Evergates .   University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999. Renaissance studies : journal of the Society for Renaissance Studies , 13., 3 (September 1999):  Pages 74 - 110.
Year of Publication: 1999.

61. Record Number: 3777
Author(s): Livingstone, Amy
Contributor(s):
Title : Aristocratic Women in the Chartrain
Source: Aristocratic Women in Medieval France.   Edited by Theodore Evergates .   University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999. Renaissance studies : journal of the Society for Renaissance Studies , 13., 3 (September 1999):  Pages 44 - 73.
Year of Publication: 1999.

62. Record Number: 4236
Author(s): Nicholson, H. J.
Contributor(s):
Title : Margaret de Lacy and the Hospital of St. John at Aconbury, Herefordshire [The author examines Magaret de Lacy's successful effort to oust the Hospitallers from the priory that she had founded for women].
Source:   Edited by Anthony Luttrell and Helen J. Nicholson Journal of Ecclesiastical History , 50., 4 (October 1999):  Pages 629 - 651. Later version published in Hospitaller Women in the Middle Ages. Edited by Anthony Luttrell and Helen J. Nicholson. Ashgate, 2006. Pages 153-178
Year of Publication: 1999.

63. Record Number: 4717
Author(s): Bauer, Elizabeth Jensen.
Contributor(s):
Title : Medieval Women and the Care of the Sick: Some Evidence from Hagiography [the author argues that some qualities that women saints display in the care of the sick according to their "vitae" are different from those in men's lives, namely humility, strength (not only physical strength but an absence of revulsion and nausea before the physical conditions of lepers and other sick people), and penance by identifying with the suffering of others].
Source: Magistra , 5., 1 (Summer 1999):  Pages 79 - 96.
Year of Publication: 1999.

64. Record Number: 5149
Author(s): Meyer, Marc Anthony.
Contributor(s):
Title : Queens, Convents, and Conversion in Early Anglo-Saxon England [the author argues for the importance of royal and noble women who made politically strategic marriages, in part to convert pagans; some of these same women were then charged with ruling newly founded monasteries or double houses and passed on to their daughters this unique opportunity for exercising power].
Source: Revue Bénédictine , 109., 40180 ( 1999):  Pages 90 - 116.
Year of Publication: 1999.

65. Record Number: 7069
Author(s): Downie, Fiona.
Contributor(s):
Title : And They Lived Happily Ever After? Medieval Queenship and Marriage in Scotland, 1424-1449 [The author explores the training and roles of queens, both women married to Scottish kings and Scottish princesses married to foreign rulers. Women discussed include Joan Beaufort, Mary of Guelders, and the daughters of James I, Margaret, Isabella, Mary, Annabella, Eleanor, and Johanna. The author argues that political alliances were often a failure, but that marriage created a communications network based on family ties. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Gendering Scottish History: An International Approach.   Edited by Terry Brotherstone, Deborah Simonton, and Oonagh Walsh Mackie Occasional Colloquia Series .   Cruithne Press, 1999. Revue Bénédictine , 109., 40180 ( 1999):  Pages 129 - 141.
Year of Publication: 1999.

66. Record Number: 3780
Author(s): Cheyette, Fredric.
Contributor(s):
Title : Women, Poets, and Politics in Occitania
Source: Aristocratic Women in Medieval France.   Edited by Theodore Evergates .   University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999. Renaissance studies : journal of the Society for Renaissance Studies , 14., 3 (September 2000):  Pages 138 - 177.
Year of Publication: 1999.

67. Record Number: 3956
Author(s): Holman, Beth L.
Contributor(s):
Title : Exemplum and "Imitatio" : Countess Matilda and Lucrezia Pico della Mirandola at Polirone Italy [the Appendix reproduces four documents in Latin concerning Lucrezia Pico della Mirandola and the monastery at Polirone].
Source: Art Bulletin (Full Text via JSTOR) 81,4 (December 1999): 637-664. Link Info
Year of Publication: 1999.

68. Record Number: 5531
Author(s): De Courcelles, Dominique.
Contributor(s):
Title : Recherches sur les livres et les femmes en Catalogne aux XVe et XVIe siècles [the author briefly considers the literary debate about woman's nature, the roles which women played in the creation of literary works as authors, dedicatees, and commissioners, and the kinds of books found in women's libraries; in briefly considering women's literary circles, the author mentions the noble woman Isabel Suaris who promoted courtly literature and Abbess Isabel de Villena whose convent was a center of literary activity].
Source: Des Femmes et des Livres: France et Espagnes, XIVe-XVIIe siècle. Actes de la journée d'étude organisée par l'École nationale des chartes et l'École normale supérieure de Fontenay/Saint-Cloud (Paris, 30 avril 1998).   Edited by Dominique de Courcelles and Carmen Val Julián .   Études et Rencontres de l'École des Chartes, 4. École des Chartes, 1999.  Pages 95 - 114.
Year of Publication: 1999.

69. Record Number: 3756
Author(s): Livingstone, Amy
Contributor(s):
Title : Powerful Allies and Dangerous Adversaries: Noblewomen in Medieval Society [the author writes an introductory overview of noble women's lives as daughters, wives, mothers, and widows including their relationships with the church and land].
Source: Women in Medieval Western European Culture.   Edited by Linda E. Mitchell .   Garland Publishing, 1999.  Pages 7 - 30.
Year of Publication: 1999.

70. Record Number: 3776
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Adela of Blois: Familial Alliances and Female Lordship
Source: Aristocratic Women in Medieval France.   Edited by Theodore Evergates .   University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999.  Pages 7 - 43.
Year of Publication: 1999.

71. Record Number: 4247
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : The Identity of Margaret in Thomas Usk's "Testament of Love"
Source: Medium Aevum , 68., 1 ( 1999):  Pages 63 - 72.
Year of Publication: 1999.

72. Record Number: 4978
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Matronage or Patronage? The Case of Osbern Bokenham's Women Patrons [the author explores the lives and politics of six gentry and noble women, Isabel Hunt, Agatha Flegge, Katherine Clopton Denston, Katherine Howard, Elizabeth Howard Vere, and Lady Isabel Bourchier, countess of Eu, mentioned in the "Legendys of Hooly Wummen"; they were important to Bokenham and his priory, in part because of their political and social connections to Richard, Duke of York].
Source: Florilegium , 16., ( 1999):  Pages 97 - 105.
Year of Publication: 1999.

73. Record Number: 3767
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Noblewomen and Political Activity [The author provides an introductory overview touching on political roles, the influence that noblewomen wielded, their administrative duties, patronage, the religious life, and the commemoration of family members].
Source: Women in Medieval Western European Culture.   Edited by Linda E. Mitchell .   Garland Publishing, 1999. Florilegium , 16., ( 1999):  Pages 209 - 219.
Year of Publication: 1999.

74. Record Number: 3779
Author(s): Nicholas, Karen S.
Contributor(s):
Title : Countesses as Rulers in Flanders [The author surveys the activities of twelve countesses in Flanders; their personalities and circumstances varied widely but many displayed skillful diplomacy, keen support for women's religion, and concern for the welfare of their subjects].
Source: Aristocratic Women in Medieval France.   Edited by Theodore Evergates .   University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999. Florilegium , 16., ( 1999):  Pages 111 - 137.
Year of Publication: 1999.

75. Record Number: 7351
Author(s): La Rocca, Cristina.
Contributor(s):
Title : Pouvoirs des femmes, pouvoir de la loi dans l'Italie Lombarde [The author argues that one can speak of women's rights in this period, but only those that aristocratic families negotiated with the king in order to preserve patrimonies. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Femmes et pouvoirs des femmes à Byzance et en Occident (VIe -XIe siècles). Colloque international organisé les 28, 29 et 30 mars 1996 à Bruxelles et Villeneuve d'Ascq.   Edited by Stéphane Lebecq, Alain Dierkens, Régine Le Jan, and Jean-Marie Sansterre .   Centre de Recherche sur l'Histoire de l'Europe du Nord-Ouest, Université Charles de Gaulle-Lille 3, 1999. Florilegium , 16., ( 1999):  Pages 37 - 50.
Year of Publication: 1999.

76. Record Number: 7353
Author(s): Gros, Gérard.
Contributor(s):
Title : L'Épouse du comte du IXe au XIe siècle: Transformation d'un modèle et idéologie du pouvoir [The author argues that the wives of counts took on a new importance in the Carolingian era. The Church encouraged a model of marriage in which the wife served as counselor to the count. Other indications of the change in the role of the countess were the appearance of the term "comitissa" in documents, the need for the consent of the countess in property donations initiated by her husband, and the listings of the husband and wife together in monastic "libri memoriales." Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Femmes et pouvoirs des femmes à Byzance et en Occident (VIe -XIe siècles). Colloque international organisé les 28, 29 et 30 mars 1996 à Bruxelles et Villeneuve d'Ascq.   Edited by Stéphane Lebecq, Alain Dierkens, Régine Le Jan, and Jean-Marie Sansterre .   Centre de Recherche sur l'Histoire de l'Europe du Nord-Ouest, Université Charles de Gaulle-Lille 3, 1999. Florilegium , 16., ( 1999):  Pages 65 - 73.
Year of Publication: 1999.

77. Record Number: 7363
Author(s): Kaplan, Michel.
Contributor(s):
Title : L'Aristocrate byzantine et sa Fortune [The author explores a number of cases where wealthy noble women administered their estates themselves and disposed of their properties and other goods. The women profiled include Danielis, a weathy and powerful noble woman associated with Emperor Basil I, Eudocie Bourion, who sold some of her dowry lands while her husband was still alive, Empress Irene Doukaina, Kale Basiliake, a wealthy young woman who became a nun upon her husband's death. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Femmes et pouvoirs des femmes à Byzance et en Occident (VIe -XIe siècles). Colloque international organisé les 28, 29 et 30 mars 1996 à Bruxelles et Villeneuve d'Ascq.   Edited by Stéphane Lebecq, Alain Dierkens, Régine Le Jan, and Jean-Marie Sansterre .   Centre de Recherche sur l'Histoire de l'Europe du Nord-Ouest, Université Charles de Gaulle-Lille 3, 1999. Florilegium , 16., ( 1999):  Pages 205 - 226.
Year of Publication: 1999.

78. Record Number: 7354
Author(s): Santinelli, Emmanuelle.
Contributor(s):
Title : La Veuve du prince au tournant de l'an mil: l'exemple de Berthe de Bourgogne [Berthe, the widow of the count of Blois, preserved her children's inheritance, the author argues, in a shrewd move by marrying the King of France. Though censured by the Church, Berthe was in all other ways an exemplary widow: preserving the "memoria" of her first husband, giving generously to monasteries, and ruling until her son came of age. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Femmes et pouvoirs des femmes à Byzance et en Occident (VIe -XIe siècles). Colloque international organisé les 28, 29 et 30 mars 1996 à Bruxelles et Villeneuve d'Ascq.   Edited by Stéphane Lebecq, Alain Dierkens, Régine Le Jan, and Jean-Marie Sansterre .   Centre de Recherche sur l'Histoire de l'Europe du Nord-Ouest, Université Charles de Gaulle-Lille 3, 1999. Florilegium , 16., ( 1999):  Pages 75 - 89.
Year of Publication: 1999.

79. Record Number: 7359
Author(s): Mckitterick, Rosamond.
Contributor(s):
Title : Les Femmes, les arts et la culture en occident dans le haut moyen âge [The author examines the efforts made by learned women during the Carolingian era to promote Biblical knowledge and reform the liturgy. In monasteries high-born women copied important texts and wrote in all the valued literary genres. Royal and noblewomen, including Gisela, the sister of Charlemagne, and Rotrude, his daughter, developed relationships as patrons and allies with scholars and churchmen from whom they commissioned texts which responded to their religious needs. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Femmes et pouvoirs des femmes à Byzance et en Occident (VIe -XIe siècles). Colloque international organisé les 28, 29 et 30 mars 1996 à Bruxelles et Villeneuve d'Ascq.   Edited by Stéphane Lebecq, Alain Dierkens, Régine Le Jan, and Jean-Marie Sansterre .   Centre de Recherche sur l'Histoire de l'Europe du Nord-Ouest, Université Charles de Gaulle-Lille 3, 1999. Florilegium , 16., ( 1999):  Pages 149 - 161.
Year of Publication: 1999.

80. Record Number: 4330
Author(s): Cooper, Kate
Contributor(s):
Title : The Martyr, the "matrona," and the Bishop: the Matron Lucina and the Politics of Martyr Cult in Fifth- and Sixth- Century Rome
Source: Early Medieval Europe , 8., 3 ( 1999):  Pages 297 - 317.
Year of Publication: 1999.

81. Record Number: 4750
Author(s): Connor, Carolyn L.
Contributor(s):
Title : Documents: The Epigram in the Church of Hagios Polyeuktos in Constantinople and Its Byzantine Response [the author argues that Anicia Juliana herself may have composed the seventy-six line epigram that was inscribed inside and outside her magnificent church; later building inscriptions as well as books reacted to her family pride, sumptuous descriptions, and learned rhetoric that was reflected in her influential encomium/dedication; the appendices include a transcription of the Greek epigram that was inscribed in Hagios Polyeuktos; an English translation of the epigram; the Greek epigrams that were inscribed in the church of Saint Euphemia, a church that Juliana refurbished; a transcription of the Greek epigram from the Vienna Dioscurides manuscript (cod. med. gr. 1, fol. 6 verso) which forms an acrostic on Juliana's name; a transcription of the Greek epigram on the frieze of the church of Saints Sergius and Bacchus built by Justin and Theodora shortly after Hagios Polyeuktos].
Source: Byzantion , 69., 2 ( 1999):  Pages 479 - 527.
Year of Publication: 1999.

82. Record Number: 4446
Author(s): Killerby, Catherine Kovesi.
Contributor(s):
Title : Heralds of a Well-Instructed Mind: Nicolosa Sanuti's Defence of Women and Their Clothes [in the Appendix the author gives an English translation of Nicolosa Sanuti's protest against a new sumptuary law].
Source: Renaissance studies : journal of the Society for Renaissance Studies , 13., 3 (September 1999):  Pages 255 - 282.
Year of Publication: 1999.

83. Record Number: 5696
Author(s): Stones, Alison.
Contributor(s):
Title : Nipples, Entrails, Severed Heads, and Skin: Devotional Images for Madame Marie [the author argues that the Marie for whom Ms. 16251 was created was the noble woman Marie de Rethel who in 1266 became the third wife of Wautier d'Enghien; the author suggests that the many scenes of torture and death in the illustrations of Bible stories and saints' lives were intended to remind the viewer of Marie's roles as mother and wife].
Source: Image and Belief: Studies in Celebration of the Eightieth Anniversary of the Index of Christian Art.   Edited by Colum Hourihane .   Index of Christian Art, Department of Art and Archaeology, Princeton University in association with Princeton University Press, 1999. Renaissance studies : journal of the Society for Renaissance Studies , 13., 3 (September 1999):  Pages 47 - 70.
Year of Publication: 1999.

84. Record Number: 3364
Author(s): Lauxtermann, Marc.
Contributor(s):
Title : Three Biographical Notes [the first concerns Kassia, the hymnwriter and abbess; the author analyzes the story which places Kassia in a bride show for the young emperor Theophilos; the author argues that the story was intended to rehabilitate Kassia's reputation and banish all doubts about her lukewarm support of iconophilia orthodoxy].
Source: Byzantinische Zeitschrift , 91., 2 ( 1998):  Pages 391 - 405.
Year of Publication: 1998.

85. Record Number: 5529
Author(s): Cheyette, Fredric L. and Margaret Switten
Contributor(s):
Title : Women in Troubadour Song: Of the Countess and the Vilana [The authors analyze two songs, one by the Countess de Dia and the other by Marcabru, in which strong women's voices are heard demanding their rights and resisting exploitation; the authors also trace the varied political roles of Occitan noble women and the social setting in which these two songs might have been performed].
Source: Women and Music , 2., ( 1998):  Pages 26 - 45.
Year of Publication: 1998.

86. Record Number: 8679
Author(s): Collina, Beatrice.
Contributor(s):
Title : Matilde di Canossa nelle culture europee: Reggio Emilia- Canossa- Quattro Castella 25-27 settembre 1997 [The author reports on a conference devoted to Matilda. The conference not only examined Matilda, countess of Tuscany, in her own age but also considered her place in literature and historiography. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Quaderni Medievali , 45., (giugno 1998):  Pages 255 - 263.
Year of Publication: 1998.

87. Record Number: 4825
Author(s): Swabey, ffiona.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Letter Book of Alice de Bryene and Alice de Sutton's List of Debts [the author analyzes eight letters written to Alice de Bryene, commenting on the familial and administrative duties Alice undertook; her grandmother, Alice de Sutton, serves as an example of irresponsible management because she hadn't paid her husband's legacies thirty years after his death; the appendices reproduce the texts of the eight letters in French and the list of debts in Latin].
Source: Nottingham Medieval Studies , 42., ( 1998):  Pages 121 - 145.
Year of Publication: 1998.

88. Record Number: 3570
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : The Many Faces in Dhuoda's Mirror: The "Liber Manualis" and a Century of Scholarship [explores the wide range of scholarly opinion in the last century concerning Dhuoda's writing skills, knowledge of politics, role as an educator, degree of agency, and importance as a spiritual guide].
Source: Magistra , 4., 2 (Winter 1998):  Pages 89 - 134.
Year of Publication: 1998.

89. Record Number: 3629
Author(s): Borrero Fernández, Mercedes.
Contributor(s):
Title : Peasant and Aristocratic Women: Their role in the Rural Economy of Seville at the End of the Middle Ages
Source: Women at Work in Spain: From the Middle Ages to Early Modern Times.   Edited by Marilyn Stone and Carmen Benito-Vessels .   Peter Lang, 1998. Magistra , 4., 2 (Winter 1998):  Pages 11 - 31.
Year of Publication: 1998.

90. Record Number: 5562
Author(s): Manion, Margaret M.
Contributor(s):
Title : Women, Art, and Devotion: Three French Fourteenth-Century Royal Prayer Books [The author argues that the three prayerbooks were produced by the same group of skilled illuminators under the influence of Franciscan and Dominican spirituality; however, each book has many unique texts and illustrations adapted to the needs and interes
Source: The Art of the Book: Its Place in Medieval Worship.   Edited by Margaret M. Manion and Bernard J. Muir .   University of Exeter Press, 1998. Magistra , 4., 2 (Winter 1998):  Pages 21 - 66.
Year of Publication: 1998.

91. Record Number: 3139
Author(s): Smith, Julia M. H.
Contributor(s):
Title : Gender and Ideology in the Early Middle Ages [focuses on Carolingian noble women and their role as wives].
Source: Gender and Christian religion: papers read at the 1996 Summer Meeting and the 1997 Winter Meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society.   Edited by R. N. Swanson Studies in Church History, 34.  1998. Magistra , 4., 2 (Winter 1998):  Pages 51 - 73.
Year of Publication: 1998.

92. Record Number: 3077
Author(s): Sullivan, Joseph M.
Contributor(s):
Title : Brother Hermann's "Iolande": A Tale of Ideal Female Spirituality
Source: Monatshefte , 90., 2 (Summer 1998):  Pages 161 - 175.
Year of Publication: 1998.

93. Record Number: 2388
Author(s): Behrens-Abouseif, Doris.
Contributor(s):
Title : The "Mahmal" Legend and the Pilgrimage of the ladies of the Mamluk Court [development of the legend of the ceremonial palanquin in pilgrim caravans and its association with Shajarat al-Durr, wife two sultans].
Source: Mamluk Studies Review , 1., ( 1997):  Pages 87 - 96.
Year of Publication: 1997.

94. Record Number: 3619
Author(s): Stasser, Thierry.
Contributor(s):
Title : Autour de Roger le Vieux: les alliances matrimoniales des comtes de Carcassonne [the author, comparing given names, reconstructs the family ties for both Adelaide and Arsinde]
Source: Annales du Midi , 108., 214 (avril-juin 1997):  Pages 165 - 187.
Year of Publication: 1997.

95. Record Number: 4999
Author(s): Bergamaschi, Maria Bettelli.
Contributor(s):
Title : Monachesimo femminile e potere politico nell' Alto Medioevo: Il caso di San Salvatore di Brescia [Monasticism began as an alternative to the rapprochement between Church and Empire. Gradually, however, even women's communities were assimilated into the noble culture of the early Middle Ages. San Salvatore was founded and led by noble women. Moreover, noble families expected both spiritual and political benefits from their patronage. Desiderius, king of the Lombards, with his wife Ansa, supported San Salvatore as a political move when he was consolidating his regime, demonstrating his power and orthodoxy to a key city].
Source: Il monachesimo femminile in Italia dall' Alto Medioevo al secolo XVII a confronto con l' oggi.   Edited by Gabriella Zarri .   San Pietro in Cariano: Il Segno dei Gabrielli editori, 1997. Annales du Midi , 108., 214 (avril-juin 1997):  Pages 41 - 74.
Year of Publication: 1997.

96. Record Number: 2273
Author(s): Zimmermann, Margarete
Contributor(s):
Title : English Noblewomen and the Local Community in the Later Middle Ages [roles that noble women played at the local level as employers, almsgivers, supporters of the parish, providers of hospitality and entertainment, and members of confraternities].
Source: Medieval Women in Their Communities.   Edited by Diane Watt .   University of Toronto Press, 1997. Nottingham Medieval Studies , 4., ( 1997):  Pages 186 - 203.
Year of Publication: 1997.

97. Record Number: 2735
Author(s): Payne, Paddy and Caroline Barron
Contributor(s):
Title : The Letters and Life of Elizabeth Despenser, Lady Zouche (d. 1408) [her letters and will provide a glimpse of her personal concerns regarding family, household and servants, business affairs, and religion; appendices include an English translation of her will, a calendar of documents by or about Lady Elizabeth, and texts of her letters, 1402-1403].
Source: Nottingham Medieval Studies , 4., ( 1997):  Pages 126 - 156.
Year of Publication: 1997.

98. Record Number: 2206
Author(s): Livingstone, Amy
Contributor(s):
Title : Noblewomen's Control of Property in Early Twelfth-Century Blois-Chartres
Source: Medieval Prosopography , 18., ( 1997):  Pages 55 - 71.
Year of Publication: 1997.

99. Record Number: 2860
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Joncvrouwen, hydrauden, clercken ende missagiere: Bräute und Boten als Spiegel der bayerisch-holländischen Kommunikation um 1390
Source: Amsterdamer Beiträge zur älteren Germanistik , 48., ( 1997):  Pages 87 - 113.
Year of Publication: 1997.

100. Record Number: 2266
Author(s): Cartwright, Jane.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Desire to Corrupt: Convent and Community in Medieval Wales [discusses the number of nunneries in Wales, their population, and economic condition; also considers Welsh social and cutltural attitudes toward women's sexuality and religious devotion as reflected by the Cywyddwyr poets, a group that wrote under aristocratic patronage in the fourteenth century].
Source: Medieval Women in Their Communities.   Edited by Diane Watt .   University of Toronto Press, 1997. Amsterdamer Beiträge zur älteren Germanistik , 48., ( 1997):  Pages 20 - 48.
Year of Publication: 1997.

101. Record Number: 2557
Author(s): Kisby, Fiona.
Contributor(s):
Title : A Mirror of Monarchy: Music and Musicians in the Household Chapel of the Lady Margaret Beaufort, Mother of Henry VII [article includes an appendix listing the members of the chapel of Lady Margaret Beaufort].
Source: Early Music History (Full Text via JSTOR) 16 (1997): 203-234. Link Info
Year of Publication: 1997.

102. Record Number: 1869
Author(s): Muir Wright, Rosemary.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Great Whore in the Illustrated Apocalypse Cycles [traces the development of the image of the Whore of Babylon and discusses the impact that aristocratic female readers had on her representation in manuscripts both as the sovereign lady and as the evil other].
Source: Journal of Medieval History , 23., 3 (September 1997):  Pages 191 - 210.
Year of Publication: 1997.

103. Record Number: 3680
Author(s): Jambeck, Karen K.
Contributor(s):
Title : Patterns of Women's Literary Patronage: England, 1200- ca.1475 [The author argues that many noble women managed their estates while their husbands were away or deceased; in order to train their daughters they patronized literature that reflected female capacity and self-worth.]
Source: The Cultural Patronage of Medieval Women.   Edited by June Hall McCash .   University of Georgia Press, 1996. Medieval Perspectives , 11., ( 1996):  Pages 228 - 265.
Year of Publication: 1996.

104. Record Number: 670
Author(s): Ó' Cleirigh, Cormac.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Absentee Landlady and the Sturdy Robbers: Agnes de Valence [Agnes de Valence's inheritance of her Irish husband's estates prompted a fifteen year struggle with John fitzThomas. He succeeded through theft, intimidation, and perserverance].
Source: The Fragility of Her Sex?: Medieval Irishwomen in Their European Context.   Edited by Christine Meek and Katherine Simms .   Four Courts Press, 1996. Medieval Perspectives , 11., ( 1996):  Pages 101 - 118.
Year of Publication: 1996.

105. Record Number: 683
Author(s): McAuliffe, Mary.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Lady in the Tower: The Social and Political Role of Women in Tower Houses [responsible for food, hospitality, and comfort. Some women also built tower houses and waged war].
Source: The Fragility of Her Sex?: Medieval Irishwomen in Their European Context.   Edited by Christine Meek and Katherine Simms .   Four Courts Press, 1996. Medieval Perspectives , 11., ( 1996):  Pages 153 - 162.
Year of Publication: 1996.

106. Record Number: 684
Author(s): McKenna, Elizabeth.
Contributor(s):
Title : Was There a Political Role For Women in Medieval Ireland?: Lady Margaret Butler and Lady Eleanor MacCarthy
Source: The Fragility of Her Sex?: Medieval Irishwomen in Their European Context.   Edited by Christine Meek and Katherine Simms .   Four Courts Press, 1996. Medieval Perspectives , 11., ( 1996):  Pages 163 - 174.
Year of Publication: 1996.

107. Record Number: 757
Author(s): Esposito, Anna.
Contributor(s):
Title : St. Francesca and the Female Religious Communities of Fifteenth- Century Rome [the sociopolitical environment of Saint Francesca and the penitent noble women who formed the community of Tor de' Specchi].
Source: Women and Religion in Medieval and Renaissance Italy.   Edited by Daniel Bornstein and Roberto Rusconi. Trans. by Margery J. Schneider .   University of Chicago Press, 1996. Medieval Perspectives , 11., ( 1996):  Pages 197 - 218. Originally published as "S. Francesca Bussa dei Ponziani e le comunità religiose femminili a Roma nel secolo XV" in Mistiche e devote nell'Italia tardomedievale. Edited by Daniel Bornstein and Roberto Rusconi (Liguori Editore, 1992). Pages 187-208.
Year of Publication: 1996.

108. Record Number: 815
Author(s): Anderson, Jaynie.
Contributor(s):
Title : Rewriting the History of Art Patronage [women as patrons of art].
Source: Renaissance studies : journal of the Society for Renaissance Studies , 10., 2 (June 1996):  Pages 129 - 138.
Year of Publication: 1996.

109. Record Number: 816
Author(s): Warr, Cordelia.
Contributor(s):
Title : Painting in Late Fourteenth Century Padua: The Patronage of Fina Buzzacarini
Source: Renaissance studies : journal of the Society for Renaissance Studies , 10., 2 (June 1996):  Pages 139 - 155.
Year of Publication: 1996.

110. Record Number: 1866
Author(s): Mullally, Evelyn.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Portrayal of Women in the "Histoire de Guillaume le Maréchal"
Source: Peritia: Journal of the Medieval Academy of Ireland , 10., ( 1996):  Pages 351 - 362.
Year of Publication: 1996.

111. Record Number: 2330
Author(s): Neuman de Vegvar, Carol.
Contributor(s):
Title : Saints and Companions to Saints: Anglo-Saxon Royal Women Monastics in Context
Source: Holy Men and Holy Women: Old English Prose Saints' Live and Their Contexts.   Edited by Paul E. Szarmach .   State University of New York Press, 1996. Peritia: Journal of the Medieval Academy of Ireland , 10., ( 1996):  Pages 51 - 93.
Year of Publication: 1996.

112. Record Number: 2395
Author(s): Beck, Eleonora M.
Contributor(s):
Title : Women and Trecento Music [describes the musical training that young women of the upper classes received according to Francesco da Barberino's "Reggimento"].
Source: Women Composers: Music Through the Ages.   Edited by Martha Furman Schleifer and Sylvia Glickman .   Volume 1 Composers Born Before 1599. G.K. Hall ; Prentice Hall International, 1996. Peritia: Journal of the Medieval Academy of Ireland , 10., ( 1996):  Pages 73 - 77.
Year of Publication: 1996.

113. Record Number: 2772
Author(s): Brunner, Karl.
Contributor(s):
Title : Leopold III. von Österreich. Wege zur Heiligkeit
Source: Homme: Zeitschrift für feministische Geschichtswissenschaft , 7., 1 ( 1996):  Pages 34 - 45.
Year of Publication: 1996.

114. Record Number: 2773
Author(s): Rath, Brigitte.
Contributor(s):
Title : Im Reich der Topoi. Nonnenleben im mittelalterlichen Österreich zwischen Norm und Praxis
Source: Homme: Zeitschrift für feministische Geschichtswissenschaft , 7., 1 ( 1996):  Pages 122 - 134.
Year of Publication: 1996.

115. Record Number: 6328
Author(s): Koch, Ursula.
Contributor(s):
Title : Die Hierarchie der Frauen in merowingischer Zeit, beobachtet in Pleidelsheim (Kr. Ludwigsburg) und Klepsau (Hohenlohekreis)
Source: Königen, Klosterfrau, Bäuerin: Frauen im Frühmittelalter. Bericht zur dritten Tagung des Netzwerks archäologisch arbeitender Frauen 19.-22. Oktober 1995 in Kiel.   Edited by Helga Brandt and Julie K. Koch .   Agenda, 1996. Homme: Zeitschrift für feministische Geschichtswissenschaft , 7., 1 ( 1996):  Pages 29 - 54.
Year of Publication: 1996.

116. Record Number: 1778
Author(s): Gwara, Joseph J.
Contributor(s):
Title : A New Epithalamial Allegory by Juan de Flores: "La coronacíon de la Señora Gracisla" (1475) [argues that the text was written by Juan de Flores and staged as a puppet show for children, since it celebrated the betrothal of Leonor de Acuña (aged 6 to 10 years) and Pedro Alvarez Osorio (aged around 13 years)].
Source: Revista de Estudios Hispánicos , 30., 2 (Mayo 1996):  Pages 227 - 257.
Year of Publication: 1996.

117. Record Number: 681
Author(s): Affeldt, Werner.
Contributor(s):
Title : The English Noblewoman and Her Family in the Later Middle Ages [surviving sources show that family relations spanned a wide range of feeling].
Source: The Fragility of Her Sex?: Medieval Irishwomen in Their European Context.   Edited by Christine Meek and Katherine Simms .   Four Courts Press, 1996. Revista de Estudios Hispánicos , 30., 2 (Mayo 1996):  Pages 119 - 135.
Year of Publication: 1996.

118. Record Number: 2769
Author(s): Goetz, Hans-Werner.
Contributor(s):
Title : Nomen feminile: Namen und Namengebung der Frauen im frühen Mittelalter
Source: Francia , 23., 1 ( 1996):  Pages 99 - 134.
Year of Publication: 1996.

119. Record Number: 3683
Author(s): Willard, Charity Cannon.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Patronage of Isabel of Portugal
Source: The Cultural Patronage of Medieval Women.   Edited by June Hall McCash .   University of Georgia Press, 1996. Francia , 23., 1 ( 1996):  Pages 306 - 320.
Year of Publication: 1996.

120. Record Number: 3673
Author(s): McCash, June Hall.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Cultural Patronage of Medieval Women: An Overview [the author discusses the reasons for women's patronage of literature, art, and the Church including politics, religion, education for themselves or their children, and sources of entertainment for their court; she concludes by noting that one of women's motives for patronage "was the need to influence societal attitudes and make their voices heard." (p.34)].
Source: The Cultural Patronage of Medieval Women.   Edited by June Hall McCash .   University of Georgia Press, 1996. Francia , 23., 1 ( 1996):  Pages 1 - 49.
Year of Publication: 1996.

121. Record Number: 2751
Author(s): Wybourne, Catherine and Dame
Contributor(s):
Title : Seafarers and Stay-At-Homes: Anglo-Saxon Nuns and Mission [The author traces the activity of nuns during the Anglo Saxon period from Leoba's missionary efforts in Germany to the much more restricted period in the tenth and eleventh centuries as double houses disappeared].
Source: Downside Review , 114., 397 (October 1996):  Pages 246 - 266.
Year of Publication: 1996.

122. Record Number: 3676
Author(s): Caviness, Madeline H.
Contributor(s):
Title : Anchoress, Abbess, and Queen: Donors and Patrons or Intercessors and Matrons?
Source: The Cultural Patronage of Medieval Women.   Edited by June Hall McCash .   University of Georgia Press, 1996. Francia , 23., 1 ( 1996):  Pages 105 - 154. Reprinted in Art in the Medieval West and its Audience. By Madeline H. Caviness. Ashgate Variorum, 2001. Article 6.
Year of Publication: 1996.

123. Record Number: 5543
Author(s): Ferroul, Yves.
Contributor(s):
Title : Origine familiale de trois comtesses de Pallars
Source: Anuario de Estudios Medievales , 26., 1 ( 1996):  Pages 3 - 18.
Year of Publication: 1996.

124. Record Number: 841
Author(s): Classen, Albrecht.
Contributor(s):
Title : Female Explorations of Literacy: Epistolary Challenges to the Literary Canon in the Late Middle Ages [style and content of women's letters found in Georg Steinhausen's edition, "Deutsche Privatbriefe des Mittelalters"].
Source: Disputatio: An International Transdisciplinary Journal of the Late Middle Ages , 1., ( 1996):  Pages 89 - 121.
Year of Publication: 1996.

125. Record Number: 2775
Author(s): Schulze, Joachim.
Contributor(s):
Title : Der Tod im Zuber: Zu Vorgeschichte und Kontext des Lai "Equitan"
Source: Romanische Forschungen , 108., 40241 ( 1996):  Pages 122 - 134.
Year of Publication: 1996.

126. Record Number: 813
Author(s): Clough, Cecil H.
Contributor(s):
Title : Daughters and Wives of the Montefeltro: Outstanding Bluestockings of the Quattrocento [discusses their learning, roles in public life, and Christian devotion].
Source: Renaissance studies : journal of the Society for Renaissance Studies , 10., 1 (March 1996):  Pages 31 - 55.
Year of Publication: 1996.

127. Record Number: 2398
Author(s): Cardamone, Donna G.
Contributor(s):
Title : Lifting the Protective Veil of Anonymity: Women as Composer-Performers, ca. 1300-1566 [women from aristocratic families learned to sing and play instruments as part of their education and may have also composed songs; includes the Italian text, English translation, and modern performance score for "Lieta vivo e contenta dapoi ch'il mio bel Sole" attributed to Isabella de' Medici Orsini (1542-1576)].
Source: Women Composers: Music Through the Ages.   Edited by Martha Furman Schleifer and Sylvia Glickman .   Volume 1 Composers Born Before 1599. G.K. Hall ; Prentice Hall International, 1996. Renaissance studies : journal of the Society for Renaissance Studies , 10., 1 (March 1996):  Pages 110 - 117.
Year of Publication: 1996.

128. Record Number: 2389
Author(s): Touliatos, Diane.
Contributor(s):
Title : Kassia (ca. 810- between 843 and 867) [she wrote the words and music for many well-known hymns ; article includes Greek texts, English translations, and modern performance scores for "Edessa Rejoices" (Hymn to Saints Gurias, Samonas, and Abibus, Confessors and Martyrs at Vespers (November 15)
Source: Women Composers: Music Through the Ages.   Edited by Martha Furman Schleifer and Sylvia Glickman .   Volume 1 Composers Born Before 1599. G.K. Hall ; Prentice Hall International, 1996. Renaissance studies : journal of the Society for Renaissance Studies , 10., 1 (March 1996):  Pages 1 - 24.
Year of Publication: 1996.

129. Record Number: 3681
Author(s): Underhill, Frances A.
Contributor(s):
Title : Elizabeth de Burgh: Connoisseur and Patron [The author surveys Elizabeth de Burgh's extensive patronage of literary, academic, and artistic endeavors; she devoted her greatest efforts to Clare College, an unusual choice of patronage for the time.]
Source: The Cultural Patronage of Medieval Women.   Edited by June Hall McCash .   University of Georgia Press, 1996. Renaissance studies : journal of the Society for Renaissance Studies , 10., 1 (March 1996):  Pages 266 - 287.
Year of Publication: 1996.

130. Record Number: 3593
Author(s): LoPrete, Kimberly A.
Contributor(s):
Title : Adela of Blois as Mother and Countess
Source: Medieval Mothering.   Edited by John Carmi Parsons and Bonnie Wheeler .   Garland Publishing, 1996. Renaissance studies : journal of the Society for Renaissance Studies , 10., 1 (March 1996):  Pages 313 - 333.
Year of Publication: 1996.

131. Record Number: 1752
Author(s): Chamberlayne, Joanna.
Contributor(s):
Title : Joan of Kent's Tale: Adultery and Rape in the Age of Chivalry
Source: Medieval Life , 5., (Summer 1996):  Pages 6 - 9.
Year of Publication: 1996.

132. Record Number: 1563
Author(s): Brumbaugh- Walter, Lynnea.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Grace of That Mutual Glance: Reciprocal Gazing and Unholy Voyeurism in "The Life of Christina of Markyate" [analyzes the nurturing, mutual gazes Christina shares with her rescuer, the hermit Roger, and the Virgin Mary ; these gazes are contrasted with the public voyeuristic gazes that Christina's Mother Beatrix arranges to destroy her daughter's chastity]
Source: Medieval Perspectives , 11., ( 1996):  Pages 74 - 95. Proceedings of the Twenty-First Annual Conference of the Southeastern Medieval Association
Year of Publication: 1996.

133. Record Number: 434
Author(s): Redfern, Jenny R.
Contributor(s):
Title : Christine de Pisan and "The Treasure of the City of Ladies": A Medieval Rhetorician and Her Rhetoric
Source: Reclaiming Rhetorica: Women in the Rhetorical Tradition.   Edited by Andrea A. Lunsford Pittsburgh series in composition, literacy, and culture .   University of Pittsburgh Press, 1995. Mitteilungen des Instituts für österreichische Geschichtsforschung , 103., 40241 ( 1995):  Pages 73 - 92.
Year of Publication: 1995.

134. Record Number: 1572
Author(s): Johns, Susan.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Wives and Widows of the Earls of Chester, 1100-1252: The Charter Evidence [focuses on their power to make land transactions, particularly in support of the Church].
Source: The Haskins Society Journal , 7., ( 1995):  Pages 117 - 132.
Year of Publication: 1995.

135. Record Number: 1844
Author(s): Nelson, Janet L.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Wary Widow [case study of the will of Erkanfrida, widow of a minor noble man and a "deo sacrata," a woman consecrated to God in her widowhood; the author includes an English translation of the will and an appendix gives the Latin text of the will from Wampach's "Urkunden- und Quellenbuch zur Geschichte der altluxemburgischen Territorien," Reprinted in Courts, Elites, and Gendered Power in the Early Middle Ages: Charlemagne and Others. By Janet L. Nelson. Ashgate Variorum, 2007. Article 2. Pages 87-90].
Source: Property and Power in the Early Middle Ages.   Edited by Wendy Davies and Paul Fouracre .   Cambridge University Press, 1995. The Haskins Society Journal , 7., ( 1995):  Pages 82 - 113. Reprinted in Courts, Elites, and Gendered Power in the Early Middle Ages: Charlemagne and Others. By Janet L. Nelson. Ashgate Variorum, 2007. Article 2.
Year of Publication: 1995.

136. Record Number: 338
Author(s): McGurk, Patrick and Jane Rosenthal
Contributor(s):
Title : Anglo-Saxon Gospelbooks of Judith, Countess of Flanders: Their Text, Make-Up, and Function
Source: Anglo-Saxon England , 24., ( 1995):  Pages 251 - 308.
Year of Publication: 1995.

137. Record Number: 2765
Author(s): Goez, Elke.
Contributor(s):
Title : Die Markgrafen von Canossa und die Klöster
Source: Deutsches Archiv , 51., ( 1995):  Pages 83 - 114.
Year of Publication: 1995.

138. Record Number: 6010
Author(s): Ragone, Franca.
Contributor(s):
Title : Le spose del signore: scelte politiche e ceremonie alla corte di Paolo Guinigi [Paolo Guinigi rose to power in Lucca following the assassination of his brother Lazzari; to buttress his regime, he married a descendant of a previous ruler of Lucca, Castruccio Castracani; then he wed Ilaria del Carretto, whose family had ties to the Visconti of Milan; Paolo's third and fourth wives, like the spouses of his children, were from outside Lucca; these marriages were intended to buttress the prestige of the Guinigi regime].
Source: Ilaria del Carretto e il suo monumento: la donna nell'arte, la cultura, e la società del '400. Atti del convegno Internazionale di Studi, 15-16-17 Settembre, 1994, Palazzo Ducale, Lucca.   Edited by Stéphane Toussaint. Translated by Clotilde Soave Bowe. .   Edizioni S. Marco Litotipo, 1995. Deutsches Archiv , 51., ( 1995):  Pages 119 - 136.
Year of Publication: 1995.

139. Record Number: 1008
Author(s): Batlle, Carme and Teresa Vinyoles
Contributor(s):
Title : La Culture des femmes en Catalogne au Moyen Age Tardif [survey of opportunities for education, apprenticeship, reading, and learning oral traditions for women from the nobility and from merchant families].
Source: La Femme dans l' histoire et la société méridionales (IXe-XIXe S.): Actes du 66e congrés. .   Fédération historique du Languedoc méditerranéen et du Roussillon, 1995. Anglo-Saxon England , 24., ( 1995):  Pages 129 - 150.
Year of Publication: 1995.

140. Record Number: 432
Author(s): Duby, Georges.
Contributor(s):
Title : Women and Power [the ways in which aristocratic women in northern France took part in the power of command and of punishment].
Source: Cultures of Power: Lordship, Status, and Process in Twelfth-Century Europe.   Edited by Thomas N. Bisson .   University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995. Anglo-Saxon England , 24., ( 1995):  Pages 69 - 85.
Year of Publication: 1995.

141. Record Number: 41
Author(s): Monson, Don A.
Contributor(s):
Title : Troubadour's Lady Reconsidered Again
Source: Speculum (Full Text via JSTOR) 70 (1995): 255-274. Link Info
Year of Publication: 1995.

142. Record Number: 1163
Author(s): Brooks, Sarah T.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Double Portrait of Kale Kavalasea from Mistra [Kale is represented in secular and monastic dress along with her daughter and son].
Source: Byzantine Studies Conference. Abstracts of Papers , 21., ( 1995):  Pages 79
Year of Publication: 1995.

143. Record Number: 377
Author(s): Summit, Jennifer.
Contributor(s):
Title : William Caxton, Margaret Beaufort, and the Romance of Female Patronage ["Blanchardyn and Eglantine" as a sphere of masculine activity].
Source: Women, the Book and the Worldly: Selected Proceedings of the St. Hilda's Conference, 1993. Volume 2. [Volume 1: Women, the Book, and the Godly].   Edited by Lesley Smith and Jane H. M. Taylor .   D.S.Brewer, 1995. Byzantine Studies Conference. Abstracts of Papers , 21., ( 1995):  Pages 151 - 165.
Year of Publication: 1995.

144. Record Number: 1702
Author(s): Cropp, Glynnis M.
Contributor(s):
Title : Les personnages féminins tirés de l'histoire de la France dans le "Livre de la Cité des Dames" [brief discussions of the twenty-one French queens, countesses, and duchesses in the text].
Source: Une femme de Lettres au Moyen Age: Études autour de Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Liliane Dulac and Bernard Ribémont .   Paradigme, 1995. Byzantine Studies Conference. Abstracts of Papers , 21., ( 1995):  Pages 195 - 208.
Year of Publication: 1995.

145. Record Number: 1212
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Merovingian Monastic Women: A Work in Progress [second in a series of articles drawn from a biographical dictionary of Benedictine women compiled by the late author; the editors of Magistra are revising the manuscript and adding bibliographical sources in preparation for final publication].
Source: Magistra , 1., 2 (Winter 1995):  Pages 333 - 372.
Year of Publication: 1995.

146. Record Number: 1132
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Anglo-Saxon Monastic Women: A Work in Progress [the late author compiled a biographical dictionary of Benedictine women; the editors of Magistra are revising the manuscript and adding bibliographical sources in preparation for final publication].
Source: Magistra , 1., 1 (Summer 1995):  Pages 139 - 171.
Year of Publication: 1995.

147. Record Number: 1085
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : The "Banshenchas" Revisited [both versions, the verse and later prose text, reveal an aristocratic circle that intermarried for political purposes; liberal divorce laws allowed multiple marriages for women as well as men].
Source: Chattel, Servant, or Citizen: Women's Status in Church, State, and Society.   Edited by Mary O' Dowd and Sabine Wichert .   Historical Studies 19. Papers Read Before the XXIst Irish Conference of Historians, Held at Queen's University of Belfast, 27-30 May 1993. Institute of Irish Studies, The Queen's University of Belfast, 1995. Magistra , 1., 1 (Summer 1995):  Pages 70 - 81.
Year of Publication: 1995.

148. Record Number: 347
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Italian Hussies and German Matrons: Luitprand of Cremona on Dynastic Legitimacy [Luitprand's charges of sexual improprieties against Lombard queens were part of Otto I's political strategy].
Source: Frühmittelalterliche Studien , 29., ( 1995):  Pages 207 - 225. Jahrbuch des Instituts für Frühmittelalterforschung der Universität Münster
Year of Publication: 1995.

149. Record Number: 1005
Author(s): Mousnier, Mireille.
Contributor(s):
Title : Aspects de l' anthroponymie féminine médiévale en Gascogne Toulousaine d' après le Cartulaire de Gimont [based on 758 documents taken from the cartulary of the Cistercian abbey of Gimont].
Source: La Femme dans l' histoire et la société méridionales (IXe-XIXe S.): Actes du 66e congrés. .   Fédération historique du Languedoc méditerranéen et du Roussillon, 1995. Frühmittelalterliche Studien , 29., ( 1995):  Pages 67 - 90.
Year of Publication: 1995.

150. Record Number: 913
Author(s): Caille, Jacqueline.
Contributor(s):
Title : Ermengarde, Vicomtesse de Narbonne (1127/29-1196/97): Une grande figure feminine du Midi aristocratique [focuses on Ermengarde's youth and old age when, despite long years of skillful rulership, she was forced out of power by her nephew, Pierre de Lara].
Source: La Femme dans l' histoire et la société méridionales (IXe-XIXe S.): Actes du 66e congrés. .   Fédération historique du Languedoc méditerranéen et du Roussillon, 1995. Frühmittelalterliche Studien , 29., ( 1995):  Pages 9 - 50.
Year of Publication: 1995.

151. Record Number: 456
Author(s): Rawcliffe, Carole
Contributor(s):
Title : Women and Medicine: Conflicting Attitudes [contemporary views of the female healer].
Source: Medicine and Society in Later Medieval England. Carole Rawcliffe .   Alan Sutton Publishing, 1995. Frühmittelalterliche Studien , 29., ( 1995):  Pages 170 - 193.
Year of Publication: 1995.

152. Record Number: 382
Author(s): Origone, Sandra.
Contributor(s):
Title : Marriage Connections Between Byzantium and the West in the Age of the Palaiologoi [case studies of Irene of Montferrat, Rita- Maria Xene, a princess of Armenia, Anne of Savoy, and Sophia of Montferrat].
Source: Mediterranean Historical Review , 10., 40180 (June/Dec. 1995):  Pages 226 - 241. Special Issue: International Contacts in the Medieval Mediterranean: Studies in Honour of David Jacoby. Ed. Benjamin Arbel. Tel Aviv University; Frank Cass, 1995.
Year of Publication: 1995.

153. Record Number: 1680
Author(s): Davids, Adelbert.
Contributor(s):
Title : Marriage Negotiations Between Byzantium and the West and the Name of Theophano in Byzantium (Eighth to Tenth Centuries)
Source: The Empress Theophano: Byzantium and the West at the Turn of the First Millennium.   Edited by Adelbert Davids .   Cambridge University Press, 1995. Mediterranean Historical Review , 10., 40180 (June/Dec. 1995):  Pages 99 - 120.
Year of Publication: 1995.

154. Record Number: 1682
Author(s): Bange, P.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Image of Women of the Nobility in the German Chronicles of the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries [focuses on women's role in politics and their piety; chronicles and annals cited are by Thietmar of Merseurg, Widukind of Corvey, Adalbert, Luitprand, Alpert of Metz, Lampert of Hersfeld, Wipo, Herman of Reichenau, and Frutolf].
Source: The Empress Theophano: Byzantium and the West at the Turn of the First Millennium.   Edited by Adelbert Davids .   Cambridge University Press, 1995. Mediterranean Historical Review , 10., 40180 (June/Dec. 1995):  Pages 150 - 168.
Year of Publication: 1995.

155. Record Number: 1679
Author(s): Winter, Johanna Maria van.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Education of the Daughters of the Nobility in the Ottonian Empire
Source: The Empress Theophano: Byzantium and the West at the Turn of the First Millennium.   Edited by Adelbert Davids .   Cambridge University Press, 1995. Mediterranean Historical Review , 10., 40180 (June/Dec. 1995):  Pages 86 - 98.
Year of Publication: 1995.

156. Record Number: 2767
Author(s): Pohl-Resl, Brigitte.
Contributor(s):
Title : Vorsorge, Memoria und soziales Ereignis: Frauen als Schenkerinnen in den bayerischen und alemannischen Urkunden des 8. und 9. Jahrhunderts
Source: Mitteilungen des Instituts für österreichische Geschichtsforschung , 103., 40241 ( 1995):  Pages 265 - 287.
Year of Publication: 1995.

157. Record Number: 1233
Author(s): Ettlinger, Helen S.
Contributor(s):
Title : Visibilis et Invisibilis: The Mistress in Italian Renaissance Court Society [a study of the highborn concubines of rulers primarily at the courts of Milan, Ferrara, and Rimini].
Source: Renaissance Quarterly (Full Text via JSTOR) 47, 4 (Winter 1994): 770-792. Link Info
Year of Publication: 1994.

158. Record Number: 1384
Author(s): DeAragon, RaGena C.
Contributor(s):
Title : Dowager Countesses, 1069-1230 [prosopographical study of fifty-eight dowager countesses including numbers of marriages, lengths of marriages, numbers of children, retirement to monasteries, and treatment by the king].
Source: Anglo-Norman Studies , 17., ( 1994):  Pages 87 - 100.
Year of Publication: 1994.

159. Record Number: 1569
Author(s): Stafford, Pauline
Contributor(s):
Title : Women and the Norman Conquest [argues against both an Anglo-Saxon golden age for women and the view of the Norman Conquest as a major turning point for noble women's status].
Source:   Edited by Lester K. Little and Barbara H. Rosenwein Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. Sixth Series , 4., ( 1994):  Pages 221 - 249. Later reprinted in Debating the Middle Ages: Issues and Readings. Edited by Lester K. Little and Barbara H. Rosenwein. Blackwell Publishers, 1998. Pages 254-263. Reprinted in Gender, Family and the Legitimation of Power: England from the Ninth to Early Tw
Year of Publication: 1994.

160. Record Number: 1573
Author(s): Halpin, Patricia.
Contributor(s):
Title : Women Religious in Late Anglo-Saxon England [while nunneries declined in numbers, endowments, and influence during the post-reform period, evidence suggests that religious women, individually and in small groups, were affiliated informally with men's foundations].
Source: The Haskins Society Journal , 6., ( 1994):  Pages 97 - 110.
Year of Publication: 1994.

161. Record Number: 2642
Author(s): Settipani, Christian.
Contributor(s):
Title : Les origines maternelles du comte de Bourgogne Otte- Guillaume. Nouvelle synthèse [traces the current research on Ermentrude, Otto Guillaume's wife, Gerberge, Otto Guillaume's mother, and Adélaïde, Otto Guillaume's grandmother; the author also proposes that Adélaïde descended from a marriage between the families of the duke of Saxony and the king of Burgundy].
Source: Annales de Bourgogne , 66., (janvier-décembre 1994):  Pages 5 - 63.
Year of Publication: 1994.

162. Record Number: 3497
Author(s): Thyrêt, Isolde.
Contributor(s):
Title : Blessed is the Tsaritsa's Womb: The Myth of Miraculous Birth and Royal Motherhood in Muscovite Russia [The author argues that the tsaritsas developed the idea of miraculous conceptions to give them some protection from the political pressures of producing an heir]
Source: Russian Review (Full Text via JSTOR) 53, 4 (Oct. 1994): 479-496. Link Info
Year of Publication: 1994.

163. Record Number: 1490
Author(s): Knickerbocker, Dale F.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Legend of the "Siete Infantes de Lara" and the Problem of "Antifeminismo" [the figures of Lambra and Sancha oppose evil with good; Lambra transgresses the social order with her sexual aggressiveness and usurpation of authority while Sancha supports the patriarchal order as a faithful wife and self-sacrificing mother who only assumes control in the absence of men].
Source: Corónica , 23., 1 (Fall 1994):  Pages 12 - 22.
Year of Publication: 1994.

164. Record Number: 3622
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : The Second Sex in Komnenian Courts
Source: Byzantine Studies Conference. Abstracts of Papers , 20., ( 1994):  Pages 23 - 24.
Year of Publication: 1994.

165. Record Number: 1542
Author(s): Klassen, John M.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Challenge of Marriage through the Eyes of a Fifteenth Century Noble Woman
Source: Husitství-Reformace-Renesance. Sborník K 60. narozeninám Frantis?ka S?mahela.   Edited by Jaroslav Pánek, Miloslav Polívka, and Noemi Rejchrtová in collaboration with Jaroslav Boubín and Jaroslav Láník Práce Historického Ústavu Cav Opera Instituti Historici Pragae .   Historicky ustav, 1994. Byzantine Studies Conference. Abstracts of Papers , 20., ( 1994):  Pages 649 - 660.
Year of Publication: 1994.

166. Record Number: 2848
Author(s): Sommé, Monique.
Contributor(s):
Title : Des Alliances liées à la procréation: Les fonctions du mariage dans les Pays-Bas Bourguignons [based on the writings of four chroniclers, Jean, lord of Haynin, Mathieu d'Escouchy, Jacques du Clercq, and Olivier, lord of La Marche].
Source: Mediaevistik , 7., ( 1994):  Pages 11 - 69.
Year of Publication: 1994.

167. Record Number: 5093
Author(s): Verdon, Jean.
Contributor(s):
Title : Le Monachisme féminin à l' époque mérovingienne: Le Témoignage de Grégoire de Tours
Source: Les Religieuses dans le Cloître et dans le Monde des Origines à Nos Jours. Actes du Deuxième Colloque International de C.E.R.C.O.R. Poitiers, 29 septembre-2 octobre 1988. .   Publications de l'Université de Sainte-Etienne, 1994. Mediaevistik , 7., ( 1994):  Pages 29 - 44.
Year of Publication: 1994.

168. Record Number: 5104
Author(s): Racinet, Philippe.
Contributor(s):
Title : Les Moniales dans l'ordre de Cluny d`après les exemples de Marcigny, Huy, Nossage, et Le Rosay
Source: Les Religieuses dans le Cloître et dans le Monde des Origines à Nos Jours. Actes du Deuxième Colloque International de C.E.R.C.O.R. Poitiers, 29 septembre-2 octobre 1988. .   Publications de l'Université de Sainte-Etienne, 1994. Mediaevistik , 7., ( 1994):  Pages 197 - 218.
Year of Publication: 1994.

169. Record Number: 1537
Author(s): Lauranson- Rosaz, Christian.
Contributor(s):
Title : Les origines d'Odon de Cluny [The author argues that Ava, wife of Abbo, is the mother of St. Odo; includes the Latin text and French translation of a charter in which Ava donates many properties to Saint Pierre de Maurs].
Source: Cahiers de Civilization Médiévale , 37., ( 1994):  Pages 255 - 270.
Year of Publication: 1994.

170. Record Number: 1549
Author(s): Anderson, J. C. and M. J. Jeffreys
Contributor(s):
Title : The Decoration of the Sevastokratorissa's Tent [Greek text, English translation, and commentary on two poems describing Eirene's tent; the authors see parallels in the secular motifs of muses and peacocks with decorations found on ivory boxes].
Source: Byzantion , 64., 1 ( 1994):  Pages 8 - 18.
Year of Publication: 1994.

171. Record Number: 1551
Author(s): Jeffreys, Michael and Elizabeth Jeffreys
Contributor(s):
Title : Who Was Eirene the Sevastokratorissa? [argues that Eirene was of Western origins, probably a Norman, chosen to marry the son of the Emperor John II Komnenos in order to help bring the Normans into the Byzantine orbit].
Source: Byzantion , 64., 1 ( 1994):  Pages 40 - 68.
Year of Publication: 1994.

172. Record Number: 2579
Author(s): Donnelly, Colleen.
Contributor(s):
Title : Without Wordes: The Medieval Lady Dreams in "The Assembly of Ladies" [argues that the author of the "Assembly" was a woman and that she intended to show women's powerlessness in the public sector by writing a dream vision in which the female characters present complaints against their lovers].
Source: Journal of the Rocky Mountain Medieval and Renaissance Association , 15., ( 1994):  Pages 35 - 55.
Year of Publication: 1994.

173. Record Number: 1772
Author(s): Jewers, Caroline A.
Contributor(s):
Title : Loading the Canon : For and Against Feminist Readings of the Trobairitz
Source: Romance Quarterly , 41., 3 (Summer 1994):  Pages 134 - 147.
Year of Publication: 1994.

174. Record Number: 1513
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Women Writers and Women Rulers: Rhetorical and Political Empowerment in the Fifteenth Century
Source: Women in German Yearbook , 9., ( 1993):  Pages 25 - 48.
Year of Publication: 1993.

175. Record Number: 7187
Author(s): Prizer, William F.
Contributor(s):
Title : Renaissance Women as Patrons of Music: The North-Italian Courts [The author draws on correspondence to trace the musical interests of Isabella d'Este and her sister-in-law, Lucrezia Borgia. They both supported a small group of musicians/music and dance teachers in their households. Their personnel specialized in secular vocal music and string music, while musicians from their husbands' households supplied other kinds of music as needed. The Appendix presents transcriptions of eight document texts in Italian and Latin pertaining to Isabella and Lucrezia. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Rediscovering the Muses: Women's Musical Traditions.   Edited by Kimberly Marshall .   Northeastern University Press, 1993. Women in German Yearbook , 9., ( 1993):  Pages 186 - 205.
Year of Publication: 1993.

176. Record Number: 8735
Author(s): Kleimola, Ann M.
Contributor(s):
Title : In Accordance with the Canons of the Holy Apostles: Muscovite Dowries and Women’s Property Rights [The author argues that women’s property rights and management responsibilities through both dowries and inheritance increased during the sixteenth century but were significantly restricted in the following century. The chief concern became to allot all l
Source: Russian Review (Full Text via JSTOR) 51, 2 (April 1992): 204-229. Link Info
Year of Publication: 1992.

177. Record Number: 8579
Author(s): Mitchell, Linda E.
Contributor(s):
Title : Noble Widowhood in the Thirteenth Century: Three Generations of Mortimer Widows, 1246-1334 [The author looks at three generations of noble widows in Wales, considering the important roles they held in the public sphere. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Upon My Husband's Death: Widows in the Literature and Histories of Medieval Europe.   Edited by Louise Mirrer Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Civilization .   University of Michigan Press, 1992. Women in German Yearbook , 9., ( 1993):  Pages 169 - 190.
Year of Publication: 1992.

178. Record Number: 9528
Author(s): Mitchell, Linda E.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Lady is a Lord: Noble Widows and Land in Thirteenth-Century Britain [Independent noble widows were common in medieval England; many chose to remain single after the death of a husband, thereby holding large amounts of land and maintaining control over their families and their tenants. These women actively participated in the public sphere, and social class carried greater importance than gender in defining their roles. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Historical Reflections/ Reflexions historiques , 18., 1 (Winter 1992):  Pages 71 - 97.
Year of Publication: 1992.

179. Record Number: 9531
Author(s): Laiou, Angeliki E.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Role of Women in Byzantine Society [The author provides a brief overview of women's roles in Byzantium, covering marriage and other family concerns, economic issues including work and dowry, politics, literacy, and society's attitudes toward women. See Record #9532 for Laiou's brief addendum to this article. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Gender, Society, and Economic Life in Byzantium. Angeliki E. Laiou Variorum Collected Studies Series .   Ashgate, 1992.  Pages 233 - 260. Earlier published in Studies in Church History 27 (1990): 53-78.
Year of Publication: 1992.

180. Record Number: 9532
Author(s): Laiou, Angeliki E.
Contributor(s):
Title : Addendum to the Report of the Role of Women in Byzantine Society [The author makes a short addition to her earlier article "The Role of Women in Byzantine Society" (Record #9531). Laiou briefly discusses new directions for research in Byzantine women's history. The article was originally published in Jahrbuch der Österreichischen Byzantinistik 31, 1 (1982): 198-204. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Gender, Society, and Economic Life in Byzantium. Angeliki E. Laiou Variorum Collected Studies Series .   Ashgate, 1992.  Pages 198 - 204. Earlier published in Studies in Church History 27 (1990): 53-78.
Year of Publication: 1992.

181. Record Number: 9533
Author(s): Laiou, Angeliki E.
Contributor(s):
Title : Observations on the Life and Ideology of Byzantine Women [The author briefly examines texts written by Byzantine women including wills. She looks at greater length at women who endowed monasteries and at the lives women led within convents. The article was originally published in Byzantinische Forschungen 9 (1985): 59-102. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Gender, Society, and Economic Life in Byzantium. Angeliki E. Laiou Variorum Collected Studies Series .   Ashgate, 1992.  Pages 59 - 102. Earlier published in Studies in Church History 27 (1990): 53-78.
Year of Publication: 1992.

182. Record Number: 10526
Author(s): Duby, Georges.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Courtly Model [In the model of courtly love that emerged in twelfth-century France, the aristocratic man submits completely to the will of the exalted “domna” (lady). The author examines whether this model of male-female relations (which appears to give the woman great power) actually resulted in a change in social attitudes toward women or an improvement in their condition. Aristocrats adopted the courtly love model from troubadour poetry and other forms of literature, and practicing courtly love allowed noble men to prove their masculinity through displays like tournaments. Although the condition of women improved by means of the courtly love paradigm, the status of men improved as well so the distance between the sexes remained largely the same. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: A History of Women in the West. Volume 2: Silences of the Middle Ages.   Edited by Christiane Klapisch-Zuber .   Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1992. Historical Reflections/ Reflexions historiques , 18., 1 (Winter 1992):  Pages 250 - 266.
Year of Publication: 1992.

183. Record Number: 8688
Author(s): Archer, Rowena E.
Contributor(s):
Title : How Ladies ... Who Live on Their Manors Ought to Manage Their Households and Estates: Women as Landholders and Administrators in the Later Middle Ages [The author studies the range of administrative roles held by women landholders and estate managers in medieval England. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Woman is a Worthy Wight: Women in English Society c. 1200-1500.   Edited by P.J.P. Goldberg .   Alan Sutton Publishing, 1992. Historical Reflections/ Reflexions historiques , 18., 1 (Winter 1992):  Pages 149 - 181.
Year of Publication: 1992.

184. Record Number: 8577
Author(s): Rosenthal, Joel T.
Contributor(s):
Title : Other Victims: Peeresses as War Widows, 1450-1500 [The author examines the lives of English war widows, who often suffered for their dead husbands' military and political disgraces. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Upon My Husband's Death: Widows in the Literature and Histories of Medieval Europe.   Edited by Louise Mirrer Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Civilization .   University of Michigan Press, 1992. Historical Reflections/ Reflexions historiques , 18., 1 (Winter 1992):  Pages 131 - 152. Originally published in History: The Journal of the Historical Association 72, 235 (1987): 213-230.
Year of Publication: 1992.

185. Record Number: 10561
Author(s): Helvétius, Anne-Marie
Contributor(s):
Title : Sainte Aldegonde et les origines du monastère de Maubeuge [The author focuses on the earliest "vita" of Saint Aldegonde written by a monk who had some contact with her. The "Life" emphasizes her visions and the miracles associated with her, both during her lifetime and after death. At Maubeuge the noble woman Al
Source: Revue du Nord , 74., 295 (avril-juin 1992):  Pages 221 - 237.
Year of Publication: 1992.

186. Record Number: 10743
Author(s): Kock, Esther.
Contributor(s):
Title : Entry into Convents and the Position on the Marriage Market of Noble Women in the Late Middle Ages [The author explores three areas that need more investigation in order to answer the issues involved in the "Frauenfrage" (that is the dramatic upsurge of women's entry into convents and other forms of religious life in the late Middle Ages): 1)The Church's changing conception of marriage including monogamy, indissolubility, and degrees of consanguinity; 2)Economic factors including dower and hereditary position; 3)Demographic factors including sex ratios and age at marriage. Second printing, revised and corrected by the editor. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Marriage and Social Mobility in the Late Middle Ages/Marriage et mobilité sociale au bas moyen-âge. Handelingen van het colloquieum gehouden te Gent op 18 april 1988.   Edited by W. Prevenier Studia Historica Gandensia .   Department of History of the Arts Faculty of the University of Gent, 1992. Revue du Nord , 74., 295 (avril-juin 1992):  Pages 99 - 122. Second printing, revised and corrected by the editor
Year of Publication: 1992.

187. Record Number: 6461
Author(s): Bausi, Francesco.
Contributor(s):
Title : Machiavelli e Caterina Sforza [after her husband, Girolamo Riario of Forlì, was murdered, Caterina Sforza gained control of the castel in the city by a stratagem; Machiavelli used the most fantastic and vulgar of the stories that had reached him in the "Discourses;" later he used the simplest and most credible in his "Florentine Histories"].
Source: Archivio Storico Italiano , 149., ( 1991):  Pages 887 - 892.
Year of Publication: 1991.

188. Record Number: 6677
Author(s): Sciascia, Laura.
Contributor(s):
Title : Scene da un matrimonio: Eleonora d'Aragona e Giovanni Chiaromonte [after other marriage plans failed, Frederick III of Sicily married Eleonora, his illegitimate daughter, to Giovanni Chiaromonte, one of his most important vassals; Eleonora found herself involved in her husband's efforts to avenge his sister's repudiation by her husband, Francesco Ventimiglia; Eleonora's husband died after further misadventures, and their daughter did not survive much longer; nevertheless Eleonora held onto the Chiaromonte estates into old age, and her beauty was praised by Boccaccio; the appendix presents the Latin text of the promise of matrimony between Eleonora and Giovanni Chiaromonte].
Source: Quaderni Medievali , 31., (giugno 1991):  Pages 121 - 129.
Year of Publication: 1991.

189. Record Number: 11210
Author(s): Matlock, Wendy A.
Contributor(s):
Title : Marginality as Woman’s Freedom: The Case of Floripe [In Jean Bagnyon’s 1478 prose rendition of “Fierabras” (a twelfth-century poem), Floripe (the sister of Fierabras) is a rare example of a woman who lives an active life. Floripe’s magical, near-divine otherness as a Saracen princess allows her extraordinary scope of action in both the public and domestic spheres. As an outsider to Christian society, she is able to act freely, and even after her marriage to a Christian nobleman she remains in a powerful space between two societies. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Journal of the Rocky Mountain Medieval and Renaissance Association , 12., ( 1991):  Pages 41 - 59.
Year of Publication: 1991.

190. Record Number: 11812
Author(s): Firestone, Ruth H.
Contributor(s):
Title : Queen Helche the Good: Model for Noblewomen [The author argues that the literary figure, Queen Helche, represents the ideal noble woman, who is intelligent and capable but also subordinate, loyal both to husband and realm. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Women as Protagonists and Poets in the German Middle Ages: An Anthology of Feminist Approaches to Middle High German Literature.   Edited by Albrecht Classen .   Kümmerle Verlag, 1991. Journal of the Rocky Mountain Medieval and Renaissance Association , 12., ( 1991):  Pages 117 - 145.
Year of Publication: 1991.

191. Record Number: 11208
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Branwen, "Beowulf," and the Tragic Peaceweaver Tale.
Source: Viator , 22., ( 1991):  Pages 1 - 13.
Year of Publication: 1991.

192. Record Number: 11214
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Why Found a Medieval Cistercian Nunnery? [Isabel de Aubigny, Countess of Arundel, was a noble-born English woman who established a Cistercian monastery in the thirteenth century. Isabel’s husband and many close relatives died when she was young, and she chose to remain a widow. After a series of additional family deaths, Isabel used the dowry she had been given by her father upon her marriage in order to establish a Cistercian nunnery. She had many motivations for founding the monastery: religious convictions (doing charity to benefit her soul in the afterlife), economic and political goals (disposing of estates), and social aspirations and responsibilities (maintaining family honor and increasing her social prestige). Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Medieval Prosopography , 12., 1 (Spring 1991):  Pages 1 - 28.
Year of Publication: 1991.

193. Record Number: 10696
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Two Hymeneal Compositions: Reflections of Fifteenth-Century Ecclesiastical Diplomacy [The author argues that the two songs written to celebrate the marriage of Cleophe Malatesta da Pesaro with Theodore II Palaiologus, Despot of the Morea, in fact serve as a failed attempt to solidify diplomatic relations between the eastern and western branches of Christendom. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Explorations in Renaissance Culture , 17., ( 1991):  Pages 87 - 108.
Year of Publication: 1991.

194. Record Number: 12697
Author(s): Jessee, W. Scott.
Contributor(s):
Title : A Missing Capetian Princess: Advisa, Daughter of King Robert II of France [Historical sources are inconsistent on the number and names of the daughters of the Capetian King Robert II of France. One of Robert's daughters was married off to Raynald, Count of Nevers, in order to build an alliance between the Capetian dynasty and the family of Nevers. The author identifies this daughter as Advisa, who married Raynald sometime after January 1016. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Medieval Prosopography , 11., 2 (Autumn 1990):  Pages 1 - 15.
Year of Publication: 1990.

195. Record Number: 12748
Author(s): Al-Heitty, Abd Al-Kareem.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Contrasting Spheres of Free Women and Jawari in the Literary Life of the Early Abbasid Caliphate [Women, both bond and free, contributed much to Arabic literary life in the courts of the Abbasid caliphs. The poetry of women poets illustrates the overlapping social spheres occupied by free noble women and jawari (female slaves or prisoners of war) in early Abbasid times. Women of the courts could play active roles in governance and education and also played a crucial role in majalis (courtly social gatherings) by composing and performing poetry or facilitating more serious assemblies for intellectual discussion. However, as the luxury of the court increased and the number of jawari in the court grew, noble born upper class women began to be subjected to more circumscribed social roles and strict moral codes. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Al-Masåq , 3., ( 1990):  Pages 31 - 51.
Year of Publication: 1990.

196. Record Number: 12750
Author(s): LoPrete, Kimberly A.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Anglo-Norman Card of Adela of Blois [Adela occupied a high social status and power by virtue of her royal blood (she was the daughter of William the Conqueror), her role as the Countess of Blois, Chartres, and Meaux, and her position as the mother of Stephen, future King of England. She exerted authority as family head, accumulating land holdings and inheritance claims for the family by negotiating marriage alliances between her own family (the Thebaudians) and other powerful dynasties. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Albion , 22., 4 (Winter 1990):  Pages 567 - 589.
Year of Publication: 1990.

197. Record Number: 12751
Author(s): Leyser, Karl.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Anglo-Norman Succession 1120-1125 [When the son and heir of Henry I died in a shipwreck, Henry made his barons pledge allegiance to his daughter Matilda (wife of Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor) as his new heir, but Matilda faced great opposition from others who claimed the throne. Although they were ultimately unsuccessful, both Matilda and her husband actively waged numerous military and diplomatic campaigns attempting to secure Matilda’s succession to the throne. It is clear from the accounts of medieval historians like Orderic Vitalis that Henry V hoped to present Matilda as not only his claim to the Anglo-Norman territories but also as the future mother of a new emperor. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Anglo-Norman Studies , 8., ( 1990):  Pages 225 - 241.
Year of Publication: 1990.

198. Record Number: 12756
Author(s): Carrasco, Magdalena Elizabeth.
Contributor(s):
Title : Spirituality in Context: The Romanesque Illustrated Life of Saint Radegund of Poitiers (Poitiers, Bibliotheque Municipale, MS 250)
Source: Art Bulletin , 72., 3 ( 1990):  Pages 414 - 435.
Year of Publication: 1990.

199. Record Number: 14553
Author(s): Bennett, Adelaide.
Contributor(s):
Title : A Book Designed for a Noblewoman: An Illustrated "Manuel des Péchés" of the Thirteenth Century [The author analyzes a manuscript made for the noble woman Joan Tateshal of Lincolnshire. The devotional and didactic texts include a manual on confession with sixty exempla underlining the moral points (see Appendix I for a listing of the exempla). Joan Tateshal is represented twice in the manuscript, not in the typical pose praying before an altar but standing in a more commanding position. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Medieval Book Production: Assessing the Evidence.   Edited by Linda L. Brownrigg .   Proceedings of the Second Conference of the Seminar in the History of the Book to 1500, Oxford July 1988. Anderson-Lovelace, 1990. Art Bulletin , 72., 3 ( 1990):  Pages 163 - 181.
Year of Publication: 1990.

200. Record Number: 12734
Author(s): Barber, Charles.
Contributor(s):
Title : The imperial panels at San Vitale: a reconsideration [Two sixth century mosaics in the aspe of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy, depict the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I (on the left) and his wife Theodora (on the right). Although the Emperor and Empress appear to be represented identically (with purple clothing, haloes, and similar postures), other types of iconography in the panels differentiate the role and status of the figures according to their gender. The Emperor, flanked by priests and soldiers, carries objects that indicate his priestly and military roles. The Empress, dressed in more lavish clothing and jewels and enclosed in a depiction of architectural space, reflects Byzantine society’s legal and social relegation of women (even aristocratic ones) to the domestic sphere. Nonetheless, Theodora’s position in image (in the center with males on one side of her, females, on the other) places her at the boundary between the sexes, as a transgressive figure who straddles both public and private spheres. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies , 14., ( 1990):  Pages 19 - 42.
Year of Publication: 1990.

201. Record Number: 12698
Author(s): Turner, Ralph V.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Children of Anglo-Norman Royalty and Their Upbringing [Although royals did demonstrate affection toward their children (both legitimate and illegitimate), aristocratic parents did not consider childcare their primary responsibility. Although noblewomen participated in the education of children, they saw other roles as more important: supervising household affairs, acting as regents when their husbands were away, giving birth to heirs, and negotiating marriage alliances for their sons and daughters. Many other people (including household servants, nurses, and relatives) shared the responsibility of childrearing. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Medieval Prosopography , 11., 2 (Autumn 1990):  Pages 17 - 52.
Year of Publication: 1990.

202. Record Number: 12741
Author(s): Featherstone, Jeffrey
Contributor(s):
Title : Olga’s Visit to Constantinople [Princess Olga of Kiev’s conversion to Christianity and her baptism in Constantinople in the middle of the tenth century are events variously described in Slavonic, Byzantine, and Latin accounts. The article contains a translation of excerpt from the Book
Source: Harvard Ukrainian Studies , 14., 3 (December 1990):  Pages 293 - 312.
Year of Publication: 1990.

203. Record Number: 15599
Author(s): Freed, John B.
Contributor(s):
Title : German Source Collections: The Archdiocese of Salzburg as a Case Study [The author uses printed source collections to study the women of the Pettau family, an extremely successful group of archiepiscopal ministerials, who served the archbishops of Salzburg as bondsmen. Freed concludes that the male family members married up in social status, while the females did not. He also found that women generally retained a good deal of control over thier property. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Medieval Women and the Sources of Medieval History.   Edited by Joel T. Rosenthal .   University of Georgia Press, 1990. Harvard Ukrainian Studies , 14., 3 (December 1990):  Pages 80 - 121.
Year of Publication: 1990.

204. Record Number: 11197
Author(s): Head, Thomas.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Marriages of Christina of Markyate
Source: Viator , 21., ( 1990):  Pages 75 - 101.
Year of Publication: 1990.

205. Record Number: 12775
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Introduction [The author provides a brief introduction to papers from a conference organized by the Societies of Antiquaries of Scotland, London, and Newcastle upon Tyne to commemorate the anniversary of the death of Margaret "Maid of Norway", queen of Scotland and daughter of Eric II Magnusson of Norway. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Scottish Historical Review , 69., 2 (October 1990):  Pages 117 - 119.
Year of Publication: 1990.

206. Record Number: 12778
Author(s): Prestwich, Michael.
Contributor(s):
Title : Edward I and the Maid of Norway [The author discusses the Maid of Norway episode in relation to English diplomacy and trade, with particular attention to Edward I’s role. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Scottish Historical Review , 69., 2 (October 1990):  Pages 157 - 174.
Year of Publication: 1990.

207. Record Number: 12776
Author(s): Barrow, G.W.S.
Contributor(s):
Title : A Kingdom in Crisis: Scotland and the Maid of Norway [The article discusses the political climate of Scotland in the thirteenth century, and the conditions under which Margaret, daughter of king Eric II Magnusson of Norway, was promised to marry Edward, the future Prince of Wales. The article includes an Appendix, which gives the English translation of the treaty of Birgham-Northampton, in which the marriage is promised. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Scottish Historical Review , 69., 2 (October 1990):  Pages 120 - 141.
Year of Publication: 1990.

208. Record Number: 11192
Author(s): Harris, Barbara J.
Contributor(s):
Title : Property, Power, and Personal Relations: Elite Mothers and Sons in Yorkist and Early Tudor England [Women were often marginalized by patriarchal power structures that placed the father at the head of the family, but the birth of a son often elevated the wife’s position. Since the first son was greatly valued in a system of primogenitural inheritance, noble mothers often had close emotional ties to their sons. The political and social future of the family often rested on the mother’s ability to manage the household, display the family’s wealth and status, and negotiate marriages and other alliances for the family’s children. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society (Full Text via JSTOR) 15, 3 (Spring 1990): 606-632. Link Info
Year of Publication: 1990.

209. Record Number: 12738
Author(s): Gunnes, Erik.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Foundation of the Brigittine Monastery of Munkeliv, and its Struggle for Existence [Saint Michael’s monastery at Nordnes was one of Norway’s richest and exclusive monasteries before the Black Death. Although the monastery was founded by a Swedish nobleman named Sten Stenarsson, its location near the commercial town of Bergen, populated by many Germans, led to an increasing amount of German monks housed there. By the late fifteenth century the monastery was in decline and functioned as retirement residence for wealthy townspeople, and its last inhabitants were likely women from prominent Norwegian families. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Collegium Medievale , 3., 2 ( 1990):  Pages 111 - 122.
Year of Publication: 1990.

210. Record Number: 12779
Author(s): Crawford, Barbara E.
Contributor(s):
Title : North Sea Kingdoms, North Sea Bureaucrat: A Royal Official Who Transcended National Boundaries [The author argues for an identification of Weland of Stiklaw (a Scottish royal officer) with the Weland recorded to have accompanied Margaret, Maid of Norway, on her voyage to Scotland. The article includes an Appendix, an inventory of Isabella Bruce’s Goods. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Scottish Historical Review , 69., 2 (October 1990):  Pages 175 - 184.
Year of Publication: 1990.

211. Record Number: 5021
Author(s): Chodor, Joanna.
Contributor(s):
Title : Queens in Early Medieval Chronicles of East Central Europe [The author notes that the chroniclers do not depict women in a decidedly negative way; instead they appreciate the many social roles that women play in family, marriage, motherhood, religion, and, even, politics].
Source: East Central Europe , 1 ( ):  Pages 9 - 50. Women and Power in East Central Europe - Medieval and Modern. Edited by Marianne Sághy.
Year of Publication:

212. Record Number: 24522
Author(s): Cavell, Emma.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Burial of Noblewomen in Thirteenth-Century Shropshire [The author examines evidence of the burial locations of Shropshire noble women during the long thirteenth century (1150 to 1350 C.E.). Cavell finds a connection between a woman’s possession of land as an heiress and her freedom to determine her own place of burial and the associated gifts to the monastery involved. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: Thirteenth Century England , 11., ( ):  Pages 174 - 191.
Year of Publication:

213. Record Number:
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Tomb of Doña Maria Vilalobos
Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d9/LisbonCathedral-Tomb3.jpg/250px-LisbonCathedral-Tomb3.jpg
Year of Publication:

214. Record Number: 30960
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Countess Matilda, Emperor Henry IV, and Abbot Hugh of Cluny
Source:
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215. Record Number: 30961
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Dedication page with Matilda of Canossa from the Vita Mathildis
Source:
Year of Publication:

216. Record Number: 31462
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Profile Portrait of a Lady
Source:
Year of Publication:

217. Record Number: 32138
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Joan Skerne
Source:
Year of Publication:

218. Record Number: 32145
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Maud Cobham
Source:
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219. Record Number: 32146
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Eleanor de Bohun
Source:
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220. Record Number: 34457
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Marie and other pilgrims with St. James
Source:
Year of Publication:

221. Record Number: 5026
Author(s): Römer, Zdenka Janekovic.
Contributor(s):
Title : Noble Women in Fifteenth-Century Ragusa [the author gives a brief overview of many of the factors in noble women's lives, including sources, marital strategies, desired female virtues, children, dowry and inheritance, family structure, legal rights, religious life, life in a noble household, education and entertainment, clothing, commerce, and politics; the Appendix lists archival sources consulted by the author in Dubrovnik].
Source: East Central Europe , 1 ( 1990):  Pages 141 - 170. Women and Power in East Central Europe - Medieval and Modern. Edited by Marianne Sághy.
Year of Publication: