Feminae: Medieval Women and Gender Index


94 Record(s) Found in our database

Search Results

1. Record Number: 29129
Author(s): Lahav, Rina,
Contributor(s):
Title : Marguerite Porete and the Predicament of her Preaching in Fourteenth-Century France
Source: Gender, Catholicism and Spirituality: Women and the Roman Catholic Church in Britain and Europe, 1200-1900.   Edited by Laurence Lux-Sterritt and Carmen M. Mangion .   Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.  Pages 38 - 50.
Year of Publication: 2011.

2. Record Number: 14568
Author(s): Green, Jonathan P.
Contributor(s):
Title : A New Gloss on Hildegard of Bingen's "Lingua Ignota"
Source: Viator , 36., ( 2005):  Pages 217 - 234.
Year of Publication: 2005.

3. Record Number: 14698
Author(s): Luongo, F. Thomas.
Contributor(s):
Title : Saintly Authorship in the Italian Renaissance: The Quattrocento Reception of Catherine of Siena's Letters [The author argues that fifteenth century readers saw Catherine's letters as an important source of moral guidance. Furthermore their being written in the Italian vernacular was not a detraction. Catherine's mysticism conveyed authority as surely as Latin and Greek did for the classics. These trends crystalize in the edition of Catherine's letters printed by Aldus Manutius in 1500. He combines spiritual and literary goals with a new typeface for the saint's inspired vernacular. [Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Journal of the Early Book Society for the Study of Manuscripts and Printing History , 8., ( 2005):  Pages 1 - 46.
Year of Publication: 2005.

4. Record Number: 10824
Author(s): Meli, Beatriz.
Contributor(s):
Title : Virginitas and "Auctoritas": Two Threads in the Fabric of Hildegard of Bingen's "Symphonia armonie celestium revelationum"
Source: The Voice of Silence: Women's Literacy in a Men's Church.   Edited by Thérèse de Hemptinne and María Eugenia Góngora Medieval Church Studies .   Brepols, 2004. Viator , 35., ( 2004):  Pages 47 - 55.
Year of Publication: 2004.

5. Record Number: 11423
Author(s): Peterson, Janine Larmon.
Contributor(s):
Title : Social Roles, Gender Inversion, and the Heretical Sect: The Case of the Guglielmites
Source: Viator , 35., ( 2004):  Pages 203 - 219.
Year of Publication: 2004.

6. Record Number: 11014
Author(s): Mills, Robert.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Signification of the Tonsure [The author argues that the tonsure was an ambivalent symbol. Sometimes it signalled shameful humiliation but in other circumstances it conferred spiritual asceticism and even masculine authority. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Holiness and Masculinity in the Middle Ages.   Edited by P. H. Cullum and Katherine J. Lewis .   Religion and Culture in the Middle Ages Series. University of Wales Press, 2004. Viator , 35., ( 2004):  Pages 109 - 126.
Year of Publication: 2004.

7. Record Number: 11419
Author(s): Bitel, Lisa M.
Contributor(s):
Title : Hail Brigit!: Gender, Authority, and Worship in Early Ireland [The author sets her study of Brigit within seventh century struggles for political and religious dominance in Ireland. Brigit's hagiographers sought to bolster her authority in order to strengthen the claims of the abbess of Kildare and her communitity to not only the churches in Leinster and the midlands but to all the religious women in Ireland. Bitel argues that paradoxically the basis of Brigit's authority comes from her gender; her hagiographies identify her powers as uniquely female. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Irish Women's History.   Edited by Alan Hayes and Diane Urquhart .   Irish Academic Press, 2004. Viator , 35., ( 2004):  Pages 1 - 14.
Year of Publication: 2004.

8. Record Number: 8065
Author(s): Watson, Nicholas.
Contributor(s):
Title : With the Heat of the Hungry Heart : Empowerment and "Ancrene Wisse" [Watson presents his article in two parts. First he argues that the author of the "Ancrene Wisse" conceives of his anchoress readers as herioc figures whose difficult lives raise them above others and serve as a sign of the coming breakdown between clergy and laity. Secondly Watson looks at the influences the text had on later writings which were addressed to lay readers, frequently men. Title note supplied by Feminae. ].
Source: Gendering the Master Narrative: Women and Power in the Middle Ages.   Edited by Mary C. Erler and Maryanne Kowaleski .   Cornell University Press, 2003. Viator , 35., ( 2004):  Pages 52 - 70.
Year of Publication: 2003.

9. Record Number: 10901
Author(s): Nolan, Kathleen.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Tomb of Adelaide of Maurienne and the Visual Imagery of Capetian Queenship [The author argues that while Adelaide's seal establishes her authority through stable conservative imagery, her tomb sculpture marks her as an individual with a special connection to the sacred site. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: Capetian Women.   Edited by Kathleen Nolan .   Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. Viator , 35., ( 2004):  Pages 45 - 76.
Year of Publication: 2003.

10. Record Number: 10747
Author(s): Kornbluth, Genevra.
Contributor(s):
Title : Richildis and Her Seal: Carolingian Self-Reference and the Imagery of Power [The author explores women's use of seals during the Carolingian era. Kornbluth focuses on the drawing of a seal (now lost) engraved with the name "Richilde." She suggests that it may have belonged to the empress married to Charles the Bald and may represent the Greek mythological figure Omphale, the Lydian queen with whom Hercules fell in love. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Saints, Sinners, and Sisters: Gender and Northern Art in Medieval and Early Modern Europe.   Edited by Jane L. Carroll and Alison G. Stewart .   Ashgate, 2003. Viator , 35., ( 2004):  Pages 161 - 181.
Year of Publication: 2003.

11. Record Number: 8315
Author(s): Petersen, Zina.
Contributor(s):
Title : Authoritative Noise: Margery Kempe's Appropriation of Unique Ritual and Authority [The author argues that Margery Kempe's identity relied on her relationship with Christ and her ability to make this relationship concrete through private rituals. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Magistra , 8., 2 (Winter 2002):  Pages 84 - 118.
Year of Publication: 2002.

12. Record Number: 9510
Author(s): Walters, Lori J.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Royal Vernacular: Poet and Patron in Christine de Pizan's "Charles V" and the "Sept Psaumes Allégorisés [The author argues that Christine speaks as a female Evangelist, substituting Middle French for Biblical Hebrew. Christine does much to affirm the sanctity and authority of Middle French. Walters also underlines the serious political issues addressed in b
Source: The Vernacular Spirit: Essays on Medieval Religious Literature.   Edited by Renate Blumenfeld-Kosinski, Duncan Robertson, and Nancy Bradley Warren .   The New Middle Ages series. Palgrave, 2002. Magistra , 8., 2 (Winter 2002):  Pages 145 - 182.
Year of Publication: 2002.

13. Record Number: 10837
Author(s): Stjerna, Kirsi.
Contributor(s):
Title : Spiritual Models of Medieval Mystics Today: Rethinking the Legacy of Birgitta of Sweden
Source: Studies in Spirituality , 12., ( 2002):  Pages 126 - 140.
Year of Publication: 2002.

14. Record Number: 9511
Author(s): Wiberg Pedersen, Else Marie
Contributor(s):
Title : Can God Speak in the Vernacular? On Beatrice of Nazareth's Flemish Exposition of the Love for God [The author examines the "Seven manieren van heiliger Minnen," a vernacular text written by Beatrice, a prioress of the Cistercian convent of Nazareth in present day Belgium near Antwerp. Wiberg Pedersen also looks at Beatrice's "vita," written in Latin by an unknown monk. The monk also translated her "Seven manieren" text into Latin for inclusion with the "vita." Wiberg Pedersen argues that the Church was frequently uncomfortable with women who wrote theological texts, particularly in the vernacular. Nevertheless Beatrice and other "mulieres religiosae" found various orthodox outlets for their writings. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: The Vernacular Spirit: Essays on Medieval Religious Literature.   Edited by Renate Blumenfeld-Kosinski, Duncan Robertson, and Nancy Bradley Warren .   The New Middle Ages series. Palgrave, 2002. Studies in Spirituality , 12., ( 2002):  Pages 185 - 208.
Year of Publication: 2002.

15. Record Number: 8056
Author(s): Tsakiropoulou-Summers, Tatiana.
Contributor(s):
Title : Hildegard of Bingen: The Teutonic Prophetess [The author presents a brief overview of Hildegard's life and works, emphasizing the various strategies Hildegard used to lend both her writings and her actions the kind of authority generally denied to women. The appended Latin texts and English translations are excerpts from Hildegard's writings and were chosen to demonstrate the breadth of her accomplishments. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Women Writing Latin from Roman Antiquity to Early Modern Europe. Volume 2: Medieval Women Writing Latin.   Edited by Laurie J. Churchill, Phyllis R. Brown, and Jane E. Jeffrey .   Routledge, 2002. Studies in Spirituality , 12., ( 2002):  Pages 133 - 172.
Year of Publication: 2002.

16. Record Number: 4738
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : The Dialogics of Margery Kempe and Her "Book" [using Bakhtin's writings on the dialogic, the author examines the relationship between the authoritative discourse of the Church and the State and Kempe's internal and persuasive voice from Jesus Christ].
Source: Mystics Quarterly , 26., 4 (December 2000):  Pages 179 - 197.
Year of Publication: 2000.

17. Record Number: 4804
Author(s): Meale, Carol M.
Contributor(s):
Title : This is a Deed Bok, the Tother a Quick: Theatre and the Drama of Salvation in the "Book" of Margery Kempe [The author argues that Kempe adopted the tecnhniques of drama in her "Book" in order to add to both her spiritual and her authorial agency].
Source: Medieval Women: Texts and Contexts in Late Medieval Britain. Essays for Felicity Riddy.   Edited by Jocelyn Wogan-Browne, Rosalynn Voaden, Arlyn Diamond, Ann Hutchison, Carol M. Meale, and Lesley Johnson Medieval Women: Texts and Contexts .   Brepols, 2000. Mystics Quarterly , 26., 4 (December 2000):  Pages 49 - 67.
Year of Publication: 2000.

18. Record Number: 4027
Author(s): Edwards, Lilas G.
Contributor(s):
Title : Joan of Arc: Gender and Authority in the Text of the "Trial of Condemnation" [The author analyzes Joan's claims to authority including her relationship to God, her virginity, and the voices she hears; the author also takes into account some of the judges' counts against her including heresy and androgyny].
Source: Young Medieval Women.   Edited by Katherine J. Lewis, Noel James Menuge, and Kim M. Phillips .   St. Martin's Press, 1999. Philological Quarterly , 78., 3 (Summer 1999):  Pages 133 - 152.
Year of Publication: 1999.

19. Record Number: 5149
Author(s): Meyer, Marc Anthony.
Contributor(s):
Title : Queens, Convents, and Conversion in Early Anglo-Saxon England [the author argues for the importance of royal and noble women who made politically strategic marriages, in part to convert pagans; some of these same women were then charged with ruling newly founded monasteries or double houses and passed on to their daughters this unique opportunity for exercising power].
Source: Revue Bénédictine , 109., 40180 ( 1999):  Pages 90 - 116.
Year of Publication: 1999.

20. Record Number: 4904
Author(s): Solterer, Helen.
Contributor(s):
Title : Fiction Versus Defamation: The Quarrel over the "Romance of the Rose"
Source: Medieval History Journal , 2., 1 (January-June 1999):  Pages 111 - 141.
Year of Publication: 1999.

21. Record Number: 3553
Author(s): Elliot, Dyan.
Contributor(s):
Title : Authorizing a Life: The Collaboration of Dorothea of Montau and John Marienwerder [the author explores how John Marienwerder's quest for self-authorization in his writings masks Dorothea's spirituality and her life]
Source: Gendered Voices: Medieval Saints and Their Interpreters.   Edited by Catherine M. Mooney .   University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999. Medieval History Journal , 2., 1 (January-June 1999):  Pages 168 - 191.
Year of Publication: 1999.

22. Record Number: 3538
Author(s): Finke, Laurie A.
Contributor(s):
Title : More Than I Fynde Written: Dialogue and Power in the English Translation of "The Mirror of Simple Souls" [The author analyzes the fifteenth-century Middle English translation of Marguerite Porete's text; the translator struggled to give passages an orthodox interpretation].
Source: Performance and Transformation: New Approaches to Late Medieval Spirituality.   Edited by Mary A. Suydam and Joanna E. Ziegler .   St. Martin's Press, 1999. Medieval History Journal , 2., 1 (January-June 1999):  Pages 47 - 67.
Year of Publication: 1999.

23. Record Number: 4388
Author(s): Lacey, Antonia.
Contributor(s):
Title : Gendered Language and the Mystic Voice: Reading from Luce Irigaray to Catherine of Siena [The author applies the symbolic and semiotic language theories of Irigaray to the writings of Catherine of Siena; the author argues that Catherine found her authority in a self-affirming relationship with Christ].
Source: New Trends in Feminine Spirituality: The Holy Women of Liège and Their Impact.   Edited by Juliette Dor, Lesley Johnson, and Jocelyn Wogan-Browne Medieval Women: Texts and Contexts, 2.   Brepols, 1999. Medieval History Journal , 2., 1 (January-June 1999):  Pages 329 - 342.
Year of Publication: 1999.

24. Record Number: 4385
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Speaking "In Propria Persona": Authorizing the Subject as a Political Act in Late Medieval Feminine Spirituality [The author examines the writings of Marguerite Porete, Christine de Pizan, and Margery Kempe to see how they speak in their own voice; when they encounter resistance, they reappropriate it and feminize it].
Source: New Trends in Feminine Spirituality: The Holy Women of Liège and Their Impact.   Edited by Juliette Dor, Lesley Johnson, and Jocelyn Wogan-Browne Medieval Women: Texts and Contexts, 2.   Brepols, 1999. Medieval History Journal , 2., 1 (January-June 1999):  Pages 269 - 294.
Year of Publication: 1999.

25. Record Number: 4270
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : The Widow as Virgin: Desexualized Narrative in Christine de Pizan's "Livre de la cité des dames"
Source: Constructions of Widowhood and Virginity in the Middle Ages.   Edited by Cindy L. Carlson and Angela Jane Weisl .   St. Martin's Press, 1999. Medieval History Journal , 2., 1 (January-June 1999):  Pages 49 - 62.
Year of Publication: 1999.

26. Record Number: 3170
Author(s): Farmer, Sharon.
Contributor(s):
Title : It is not good that [wo]man should be alone: Elite Responses to Singlewomen in High Medieval Paris [because both clerical and lay elites expected women to submit to male authority, whether that of a husband or of a male cleric, single women are ignored].
Source: Singlewomen in the European Past, 1250-1800.   Edited by Judith M. Bennett and Amy M. Froide .   University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999. Medieval History Journal , 2., 1 (January-June 1999):  Pages 82 - 105.
Year of Publication: 1999.

27. Record Number: 4382
Author(s): Mulder-Bakker, Anneke B.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Prime of Their Lives: Women and Age, Wisdom, and Religious Careers in Northern Europe [The author argues that older women took on leadership roles in religion, with prophecy, visions, teaching, and life as anchoresses].
Source: New Trends in Feminine Spirituality: The Holy Women of Liège and Their Impact.   Edited by Juliette Dor, Lesley Johnson, and Jocelyn Wogan-Browne Medieval Women: Texts and Contexts, 2.   Brepols, 1999. Medieval History Journal , 2., 1 (January-June 1999):  Pages 215 - 236.
Year of Publication: 1999.

28. Record Number: 3547
Author(s): Clark, Anne L.
Contributor(s):
Title : Holy Woman or Unworthy Vessel? The Representations of Elisabeth of Schšnau [The author explores the relationship between Elisabeth and her brother Ekbert who managed the publication of her visions; he preferred to downplay her piety while Elisabeth emphasized her prophetic role].
Source: Gendered Voices: Medieval Saints and Their Interpreters.   Edited by Catherine M. Mooney .   University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999. Medieval History Journal , 2., 1 (January-June 1999):  Pages 16 - 34.
Year of Publication: 1999.

29. Record Number: 4753
Author(s): Kemp, Theresa D.
Contributor(s):
Title : The "Lingua Materna" and the Conflict Over Vernacular Religious Discourse in Fifteenth-Century England [the author examines varied clerical writings that react to or make use of the vernacular; each text "depicts the struggle over who should have access to religious discourse as a gendered contest between a potentially transgressive vernacular, feminized as the 'Lingua Materna,' or 'the mother tongue,' and the authoritative Latin of the male-dominated Church"; clerics who used the vernacular to teach the laity had to distinguish between good uses that they masculinized and bad uses, such as demystifying theology, which they saw as a feminization].
Source: Philological Quarterly , 78., 3 (Summer 1999):  Pages 233 - 257.
Year of Publication: 1999.

30. Record Number: 2963
Author(s): Brenon, Anne.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Voice of the Good Women: An Essay on the Pastoral and Sacerdotal Role of Women in the Cathar Church [women were ordained and could administer the sacraments in an emergency; they also preached].
Source: Women Preachers and Prophets Through Two Millennia of Christianity.   Edited by Beverly Mayne Kienzle and Pamela J. Walker .   University of California Press, 1998. Revue Bénédictine , 109., 40180 ( 1999):  Pages 114 - 133.
Year of Publication: 1998.

31. Record Number: 3502
Author(s): Elliott, Dyan.
Contributor(s):
Title : Dominae or "Dominatae"? Female Mysticism and the Trauma of Textuality
Source: Women, Marriage, and Family in Medieval Christendom: Essays in Memory of Michael M. Sheehan, C.S.B.   Edited by Constance M. Rousseau and Joel T. Rosenthal .   Western Michigan University, 1998. Revue Bénédictine , 109., 40180 ( 1999):  Pages 47 - 77.
Year of Publication: 1998.

32. Record Number: 3208
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Gender Subversion and LInguistic Castration in Fifteenth-Century English Translations of Christine de Pizan [translations excised her authority and her authorship; moreover they cut away her feminizing influence, removing or masculinizing all that she offered for female empowerment].
Source: Violence Against Women in Medieval Texts.   Edited by Anna Roberts .   University Press of Florida, 1998. Revue Bénédictine , 109., 40180 ( 1999):  Pages 161 - 194.
Year of Publication: 1998.

33. Record Number: 4059
Author(s): Leyser, Conrad.
Contributor(s):
Title : Vulnerability and Power: The Early Christian Rhetoric of Masculine Authority ["Well before the twelfth century, Christian men in positions of public power had developed a language with which to express and, if possible, turn to their advantage, the precariousness of their position. Trading on already established notions of moral masculinity, these men were unafraid to depict themselves as weak, inadequate, and continuously suffering rulers--because they knew that their political survival depended on their demonstrating their absolute disinterest in personal gain from their office." Pages 172- 173].
Source: Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester , 80., 3 (Autumn 1998):  Pages 159 - 173.
Year of Publication: 1998.

34. Record Number: 4477
Author(s): Case, Mary Anne C.
Contributor(s):
Title : Christine de Pizan and the Authority of Experience [The author argues that Christine was one of several "knowing and singular" feminists in the medieval and early modern periods who maintained that exceptional women should be considered exemplars who demonstrate the potential of all women].
Source: Christine de Pizan and the Categories of Difference.   Edited by Marilynn Desmond .   University of Minnesota Press, 1998. Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester , 80., 3 (Autumn 1998):  Pages 71 - 87.
Year of Publication: 1998.

35. Record Number: 3059
Author(s): Smith, Ruth.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Mystical Self in the "Book of Divine Consolation of the Blessed Angela of Foligno"
Source: Mystics Quarterly , 24., 1 (March 1998):  Pages 8 - 22.
Year of Publication: 1998.

36. Record Number: 3488
Author(s): Gates, Laura Doyle.
Contributor(s):
Title : Distaff and Pen: Producing the Evangiles des Quenouilles
Source: Neophilologus , 81., 1 (January 1997):  Pages 13 - 20.
Year of Publication: 1997.

37. Record Number: 2907
Author(s): Otter, Monika.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Temptation of St. AEthelthryth
Source: Exemplaria: A Journal of Theory in Medieval and Renaissance Studies , 9., 1 (Spring 1997):  Pages 139 - 163.
Year of Publication: 1997.

38. Record Number: 2640
Author(s): Keller, Kimberly.
Contributor(s):
Title : Prudence's Pedagogy of the Oppressed [Prudence persuades her husband Melibee to take her advice through the use of scholastic arguments and learned citations; she changes the balance of power and sets an example for her female readers].
Source: Neuphilologische Mitteilungen , 98., 4 ( 1997):  Pages 415 - 426.
Year of Publication: 1997.

39. Record Number: 1940
Author(s): Mayeski, Marie Anne.
Contributor(s):
Title : Let Women Not Despair: Rabanus Maurus on Women as Prophets [his commentary on women prophets is compared with the ideas of Thomas Aquinas].
Source: Theological Studies , 58., 2 (June 1997):  Pages 237 - 253.
Year of Publication: 1997.

40. Record Number: 1934
Author(s): Lansing, Carol.
Contributor(s):
Title : Gender and Civic Authority: Sexual Control in a Medieval Italian Town
Source: Journal of Social History , 31., 1 (Fall 1997):  Pages 33 - 59.
Year of Publication: 1997.

41. Record Number: 2479
Author(s): Cowell, Andrew.
Contributor(s):
Title : Deadly Letters: "Deux Amanz," Marie's "Prologue" to the "Lais" and the dangerous Nature of the Gloss [argues that though Marie appropriates exegesis to lend her poems a greater authority, she is aware of her vulnerability as a female writer].
Source: Romanic Review , 88., 3 (May 1997):  Pages 337 - 356.
Year of Publication: 1997.

42. Record Number: 2639
Author(s): Harper, Stephen.
Contributor(s):
Title : So Euyl to Rewlyn: Madness and Authority in "The Book of Margery Kempe" [analyzes Margery's description of her own postpartum psychosis as well as the mad woman whom Margery cures in Chapter 75; in the latter case Margery views the madness positively as a source of increased spiritual insight and by healing this holy woman Margery demonstrates her own sanctity].
Source: Neuphilologische Mitteilungen , 98., 1 ( 1997):  Pages 53 - 61.
Year of Publication: 1997.

43. Record Number: 1976
Author(s): Obermeier, Anita and Rebecca Kennison
Contributor(s):
Title : The Privileging of "Visio" over "Vox" in the Mystical Experiences of Hildegard of Bingen and Joan of Arc
Source: Mystics Quarterly , 23., 3 (September 1997):  Pages 137 - 167.
Year of Publication: 1997.

44. Record Number: 2668
Author(s): Dietrich, Julia.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Visionary Rhetoric of Hildegard of Bingen
Source: Listening to Their Voices: The Rhetorical Activities of Historical Women.   Edited by Molly Meijer Wertheimer .   University of South Carolina Press, 1997. Neuphilologische Mitteilungen , 98., 1 ( 1997):  Pages 199 - 214.
Year of Publication: 1997.

45. Record Number: 1969
Author(s): Tobin, Frank.
Contributor(s):
Title : Audience, Authorship, and Authority in Mechthild von Magdeburg's "Flowing Light of the Godhead" [argues that her primary audience was religious (clergy and male and female monastics) and that her shared authorship (both God and Mechthild, an unlettered Beguine, were resposible) required a variety of strategies to assert the authority of her text].
Source: Mystics Quarterly , 23., 1 (March 1997):  Pages 8 - 17.
Year of Publication: 1997.

46. Record Number: 1973
Author(s): Innes-Parker, Catherine.
Contributor(s):
Title : Subversion and Conformity in Julian's "Revelation": Authority, Vision, and the Motherhood of God [in part compares images of motherhood in Julian with those in "Ancrene Wisse" and "The Chastising of God's Children"].
Source: Mystics Quarterly , 23., 2 (June 1997):  Pages 7 - 35.
Year of Publication: 1997.

47. Record Number: 1222
Author(s): Grimes, Laura M.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Authority of Confession: Gertrud of Helfta's "Legatus," Book Two [textual echoes from and resemblance in style and theme to Augustine's "Confessions"].
Source: Magistra , 2., 2 (Winter 1996):  Pages 21 - 42.
Year of Publication: 1996.

48. Record Number: 1223
Author(s): Gasse, Rosanne.
Contributor(s):
Title : Margery Kempe and Lollardy [suggests why Kempe was accused of heresy and how her beliefs and actions differed from those of the Lollards].
Source: Magistra , 2., 2 (Winter 1996):  Pages 43 - 69.
Year of Publication: 1996.

49. Record Number: 3584
Author(s): Lifshitz, Felice.
Contributor(s):
Title : Is Mother Superior? Towards a History of Feminine "Amtscharisma"
Source: Medieval Mothering.   Edited by John Carmi Parsons and Bonnie Wheeler .   Garland Publishing, 1996. Neophilologus , 81., 1 (January 1997):  Pages 117 - 138.
Year of Publication: 1996.

50. Record Number: 3639
Author(s): Sahlin, Claire L.
Contributor(s):
Title : Gender and Prophetic Authority in Birgitta of Sweden's "Revelations"
Source: Gender and Text in the Later Middle Ages.   Edited by Jane Chance .   University Press of Florida, 1996. Neophilologus , 81., 1 (January 1997):  Pages 69 - 95.
Year of Publication: 1996.

51. Record Number: 2549
Author(s): Kienzle, Beverly M.
Contributor(s):
Title : Operatrix in Vinea Domini: Hildegard of Bingen's Preaching and Polemics Against the Cathars [Hildegard delivered at least twenty-one public sermons in cathedrals and monastic communities; the article discusses four texts: Visionary treatise sent to the monks of St. Martin in Mainz, Cologne sermon preserved in a letter, Kirchheim sermon preserved in a letter, and gospel homily on Luke 21: 25-33 included in "Ex positiones evangeliorum"].
Source: Heresis: Revue d'hérésiologie médiévale. Edition de textes-Recherche , ( 1996):  Pages 43 - 56.
Year of Publication: 1996.

52. Record Number: 1851
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Margery Kempe: Spectacle and Spiritual Governance [argues that the active public spectacle of fits and weeping is a kind of martyrdom and a sign of Margery's contemplative attainments].
Source: Philological Quarterly , 75., 2 (Spring 1996):  Pages 137 - 166.
Year of Publication: 1996.

53. Record Number: 2702
Author(s): Ross, Valerie A.
Contributor(s):
Title : Resisting Chaucerian Misogyny: Reinscribing Criseyde [argues that Chaucer is a gender-conscious social visionary who seeks to subvert the "auctores" and the misogynist ideology in his transgressive alliance with Criseyde].
Source: Aestel , 4., ( 1996):  Pages 29 - 58.
Year of Publication: 1996.

54. Record Number: 1109
Author(s): Squires, Ann.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Treatment of the Figure of Judith in the Middle English Metrical Paraphrase of the Old Testament
Source: Neuphilologische Mitteilungen , 97., 2 ( 1996):  Pages 187 - 200.
Year of Publication: 1996.

55. Record Number: 1081
Author(s): Freeman, Elizabeth.
Contributor(s):
Title : Nuns in the Public Sphere: Aelred of Rievaulx's "De Sanctimoniali De Wattun" and the Gendering of Authority [how the Gilbertine nuns of Watton punished a sister who had sexual relations with a man belonging to the double house].
Source: Comitatus , 27., ( 1996):  Pages 55 - 80. [contributions are accepted from graduate students and those who have received their doctorates within the last three years]
Year of Publication: 1996.

56. Record Number: 615
Author(s): Claussen, M. A.
Contributor(s):
Title : Fathers of Power and Mothers of Authority: Dhuoda and the "Liber manualis" [Dhuoda uses scripture and St. Benedict's rule to teach her son Christian values].
Source: French Historical Studies (Full Text via JSTOR) 19, 3 (Spring 1996): 785-809. Link Info
Year of Publication: 1996.

57. Record Number: 2715
Author(s): McWebb, Christine.
Contributor(s):
Title : La Mythologie révisionniste chez Christine de Pizan [analysis of the mythological types (women warriors, sibyls, and virgins) that Christine in the "Cité des Dames" refashions from Boccaccio and in the "Ditié" creates out of her own "auctoritas"].
Source: Women in French Studies , 4., ( 1996):  Pages 27 - 39.
Year of Publication: 1996.

58. Record Number: 1613
Author(s): Lichtmann, Maria.
Contributor(s):
Title : Marguerite Porete's "Mirror for Simple Souls": Inverted Reflection of Self, Society, and God
Source: Studia Mystica New Series , 16., 1 ( 1995):  Pages 4 - 29.
Year of Publication: 1995.

59. Record Number: 1616
Author(s): Pigg, Daniel F.
Contributor(s):
Title : Medieval Theories of Textual Formation and the Book of Margery Kempe [argues that both Margery and the second scribe consciously shaped the text in response to the commentary tradition].
Source: Studia Mystica New Series , 16., 1 ( 1995):  Pages 106 - 115.
Year of Publication: 1995.

60. Record Number: 2822
Author(s): Lauwers, Michel.
Contributor(s):
Title : L'institution et le genre. À propos de l'accès des femmes au sacré dans l'Occident médiéval [traces the history of women forbidden access to the holy by the Church; studies the special cases of Beguines and other "mulieres religiosae" as well as female mystics; control by priests is maintained in all cases].
Source: CLIO, Histoire, Femmes et Sociétés , 2., ( 1995):  Pages 279 - 317.
Year of Publication: 1995.

61. Record Number: 6946
Author(s): Dronke, Peter.
Contributor(s):
Title : Medieval Sibyls: Their Character and Their "Auctoritas" [The author analyzes a 7th century Latin poem from Spain, two French texts from the 12th century, and two German poems from the 14th century. The author traces several folklore motifs involving the Sibyl as the Queen of Sheba, frequently with a goose foot which is miraculously cured after she foresees and honors Christ's future sacrifice. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Studi Medievali , 36., 2 (Dicembre 1995):  Pages 581 - 615.
Year of Publication: 1995.

62. Record Number: 1698
Author(s): Tarnowski, Andrea.
Contributor(s):
Title : Autobiograpy and Advice in the "Livre des Trois Vertus"
Source: Une femme de Lettres au Moyen Age: Études autour de Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Liliane Dulac and Bernard Ribémont .   Paradigme, 1995. Magistra , 2., 2 (Winter 1996):  Pages 151 - 160.
Year of Publication: 1995.

63. Record Number: 1119
Author(s): Federico, Sylvia.
Contributor(s):
Title : Transgressive Teaching and Censorship in a Fifteenth- Century Vision of Purgatory [explores tensions within and without the female-authored text in which women are the spiritual teachers].
Source: Mystics Quarterly , 21., 2 (June 1995):  Pages 59 - 67.
Year of Publication: 1995.

64. Record Number: 388
Author(s): Jantzen, Grace.
Contributor(s):
Title : Cry Out and Write: Mysticism and the Struggle For Authority [prominent churchmen's attitudes toward visionaries].
Source: Women, the Book and the Godly: Selected Proceedings of the St. Hilda's Conference, 1993. Volume 1 [Volume 2: Women, the Book and the Worldly].   Edited by Lesley Smith and Jane H. M. Taylor .   D.S. Brewer, 1995. Mystics Quarterly , 21., 2 (June 1995):  Pages 67 - 76.
Year of Publication: 1995.

65. Record Number: 1650
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Introduction [discusses the social constraints and the sources of religious knowledge available to late medieval Castilian nuns who wrote devotional literature and accounts of their own visions].
Source: Writing Women in Late Medieval and Early Modern Spain: The Mothers of Saint Teresa of Avila. Ronald E. Surtz .   University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995. Mystics Quarterly , 21., 2 (June 1995):  Pages 1 - 20.
Year of Publication: 1995.

66. Record Number: 367
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : Woman, Authority, and the Book in the Middle Ages [a female author's response to Richard de Fournival's "Bestiaire d' Amour"].
Source: Women, the Book and the Worldly: Selected Proceedings of the St. Hilda's Conference, 1993. Volume 2. [Volume 1: Women, the Book, and the Godly].   Edited by Lesley Smith and Jane H. M. Taylor .   D.S.Brewer, 1995. Mystics Quarterly , 21., 2 (June 1995):  Pages 61 - 69.
Year of Publication: 1995.

67. Record Number: 1688
Author(s): Dulac, Liliane.
Contributor(s):
Title : L'autorité dans les traités en prose de Christine de Pizan : discours d'écrivain, parole de prince
Source: Une femme de Lettres au Moyen Age: Études autour de Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Liliane Dulac and Bernard Ribémont .   Paradigme, 1995. Mystics Quarterly , 21., 2 (June 1995):  Pages 15 - 24.
Year of Publication: 1995.

68. Record Number: 1696
Author(s): Laennec, Christine Moneera.
Contributor(s):
Title : Prophétie, interprétation et écriture dans "L'Avision- Christine" [argues that Christine is concerned about her literary survival among future readers].
Source: Une femme de Lettres au Moyen Age: Études autour de Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Liliane Dulac and Bernard Ribémont .   Paradigme, 1995. Mystics Quarterly , 21., 2 (June 1995):  Pages 131 - 138.
Year of Publication: 1995.

69. Record Number: 389
Author(s): Andersen, Elizabeth A.
Contributor(s):
Title : Mechthild von Magdelburg: Her Creativity and Her Audience
Source: Women, the Book and the Godly: Selected Proceedings of the St. Hilda's Conference, 1993. Volume 1 [Volume 2: Women, the Book and the Worldly].   Edited by Lesley Smith and Jane H. M. Taylor .   D.S. Brewer, 1995. Mystics Quarterly , 21., 2 (June 1995):  Pages 77 - 88.
Year of Publication: 1995.

70. Record Number: 390
Author(s): Luongo, Thomas.
Contributor(s):
Title : Catherine of Siena: Rewriting Female Holy Authority [use of erotic imagery and transformations of gender].
Source: Women, the Book and the Godly: Selected Proceedings of the St. Hilda's Conference, 1993. Volume 1 [Volume 2: Women, the Book and the Worldly].   Edited by Lesley Smith and Jane H. M. Taylor .   D.S. Brewer, 1995. Mystics Quarterly , 21., 2 (June 1995):  Pages 89 - 103.
Year of Publication: 1995.

71. Record Number: 2523
Author(s): Brownlee, Kevin.
Contributor(s):
Title : Christine de Pizan's Canonical Authors: The Special Case of Boccaccio [analyzes Christine's rewriting in the "Cite des Dames" of three of Boccaccio's stories from the "Decameron" (the story of Bernabò da Genova, Ambruogiuolo, and Zinevra ; the story of Elisabetta, Lorenzo, and the "testo di bassilico"); Christine rereads Boccaccio's female exemplars in part to establish a new female authorial persona].
Source: Comparative Literature Studies , 32., 2 ( 1995):  Pages 244 - 261.
Year of Publication: 1995.

72. Record Number: 387
Author(s): Voaden, Rosalynn.
Contributor(s):
Title : God's Almighty Hand: Women Co- Writing the Book [women visionaries' call to write].
Source: Women, the Book and the Godly: Selected Proceedings of the St. Hilda's Conference, 1993. Volume 1 [Volume 2: Women, the Book and the Worldly].   Edited by Lesley Smith and Jane H. M. Taylor .   D.S. Brewer, 1995. Comparative Literature Studies , 32., 2 ( 1995):  Pages 55 - 65.
Year of Publication: 1995.

73. Record Number: 10004
Author(s): Minnis, Alastair J.
Contributor(s):
Title : Authors in Love: The Exegesis of Late-Medieval Love-Poets [Vernacular poets who wrote about secular love sometimes appropriated techniques of literary criticism from a long scholastic tradition, which involved the interpretation of the Bible or Latin authors like Ovid. By appropriating exegetical (interpretive) practices like learned prologues and glosses within their own manuscripts, vernacular authors gained an authority that was previously reserved only for Latin writers. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: The Uses of manuscripts in literary studies: essays in memory of Judson Boyce Allen.   Edited by Charlotte Cook Morse, Penelope Reed Doob, and Marjorie Curry Woods Studies in medieval culture .   Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 1992. Exemplaria: A Journal of Theory in Medieval and Renaissance Studies , 4., 1 (Spring 1992):  Pages 161 - 189.
Year of Publication: 1992.

74. Record Number: 10372
Author(s): Hicks, Eric.
Contributor(s):
Title : A Mirror for Misogynists: John of Salisbury’s “Policraticus” (8.11) in the Translation of Denis Foulechat (1372) [The author presents a translation and transcription of a misogynist text written in French by Foulechat, itself a translation of a Latin text by John of Salisbury. The writings of John of Salisbury influenced Christine’s politics, as her works often seek to address misogyny in the literary tradition. The author argues that it is plausible that Christine read Foulechat’s translation of John’s work. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Reinterpreting Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Earl Jeffrey Richards, Joan Williamson, Nadia Margolis, and Christine Reno .   University of Georgia Press, 1992. Exemplaria: A Journal of Theory in Medieval and Renaissance Studies , 4., 1 (Spring 1992):  Pages 77 - 107.
Year of Publication: 1992.

75. Record Number: 10380
Author(s): Blanchard, Joel.
Contributor(s):
Title : Compilation and Legitimation in the Fifteenth Century: "Le Livre de la Cite des Dames" [The author traces the complicated rhetorical processes involved in Christine’s adaptation of her literary sources; compilation is the central organizational principle of the work. The author suggests that we evaluate Christine’s work on the basis of its aesthetic value, and not base our judgments on an analysis of the work’s content. The author concludes by describing how the illustrations in a manuscript of “Le Livre” have an autobiographical function. In addition to depicting Christine herself, the illustrations use images of books and allegorical figures to legitimize Christine as an author. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Reinterpreting Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Earl Jeffrey Richards, Joan Williamson, Nadia Margolis, and Christine Reno .   University of Georgia Press, 1992. Exemplaria: A Journal of Theory in Medieval and Renaissance Studies , 4., 1 (Spring 1992):  Pages 228 - 249.
Year of Publication: 1992.

76. Record Number: 10801
Author(s): Rosenn, Eva.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Sexual and Textual Politics of Marie's Poetics [The author argues that Marie's relationship with textual authority comprises a specifically feminine discourse, and allows her to create a fantasy realm in which women can confront and even change the conditions of their lives. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: In Quest of Marie de France: A Twelfth-Century Poet.   Edited by Chantal A. Marechal .   Edwin Mellen Press, 1992. Exemplaria: A Journal of Theory in Medieval and Renaissance Studies , 4., 1 (Spring 1992):  Pages 225 - 242.
Year of Publication: 1992.

77. Record Number: 10244
Author(s): Szell, Timea K.
Contributor(s):
Title : From Woe to Weal and Weal to Woe: Notes on the Structure of "The Book of Margery Kempe" [The complicated narrative structure of Margery’s “Book” reflects the author’s attempt to reconcile two contradictory psychological impulses: one is the need to gain social acceptance and legitimacy; the other is the desire to be publicly shunned and perceived as outside of societal norms. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Margery Kempe: A Book of Essays.   Edited by Sandra J. McEntire .   Garland Publishing, 1992. Studi Medievali , 36., 2 (Dicembre 1995):  Pages 73 - 91.
Year of Publication: 1992.

78. Record Number: 11741
Author(s): Paulsell, Stephanie.
Contributor(s):
Title : Writing and Mystical Experience in Marguerite d'Oingt and Virginia Woolf [The author argues that both Woolf and Marguerite felt impelled to write because of transcendent experiences. They found writing to be both a healing process and an opportunity to come to a greater understanding of the insights they had received. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Comparative Literature (Full Text via JSTOR) 44, 3 (Summer 1992): 249-267. Link Info
Year of Publication: 1992.

79. Record Number: 7394
Author(s): Raybin, David.
Contributor(s):
Title : Wommen, of Kynde, Desiren Libertee: Rereading Dorigen, Rereading Marriage [The author suggests we re-read the "Franklin's Tale" from the perspective of its female character, Dorigen, in order to detect Chaucer's view on marital authority and women's agency. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Chaucer Review , 27., 1 ( 1992):  Pages 65 - 86.
Year of Publication: 1992.

80. Record Number: 11428
Author(s): Wogan-Browne, Jocelyn.
Contributor(s):
Title : Queens, Virgins, and Mothers: Hagiographic Representations of the Abbess and Her Powers in Twelfth- and Thirteenth-Century Britain [The author briefly explores a variety of themes related to abbesses including royalty, vocation, virginity, role as a mother, asceticism, and miracles. Wogan-Browne also compares the activities of Saint Modwenna as reported in her Anglo-Norman life with records concerning Ela, countess of Salisbury and founder-abbess of the convent of Lacock. The author argues that the ultimate goals for administration, protection, and economic development of their respective houses were very much the same. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Women and Sovereignty.   Edited by Louise Olga Fradenburg. Cosmos: The Yearbook of the Traditional Cosmology Society, volume 7 Cosmos: The Yearbook of the Traditional Cosmology Society, 7.   Edinburgh University Press, 1992. Chaucer Review , 27., 1 ( 1992):  Pages 14 - 35.
Year of Publication: 1992.

81. Record Number: 10243
Author(s):
Contributor(s):
Title : The Journey into Selfhood: Margery Kempe and Feminine Spirituality [The author reads Margery’s narrative of spiritual progression alongside feminist, psychological and theological accounts of how women achieve selfhood. This process involves self-negation, spiritual awakening, and self-naming. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Margery Kempe: A Book of Essays.   Edited by Sandra J. McEntire .   Garland Publishing, 1992. Chaucer Review , 27., 1 ( 1992):  Pages 51 - 69.
Year of Publication: 1992.

82. Record Number: 11116
Author(s): Dulac, Liliane.
Contributor(s):
Title : Authority in the Prose Treatises of Christine de Pizan: The Writer's Discourse and the Prince's Word
Source: Politics, Gender, and Genre: The Political Thought of Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Margaret Brabant .   Westview Press, 1992. Chaucer Review , 27., 1 ( 1992):  Pages 129 - 140.
Year of Publication: 1992.

83. Record Number: 10246
Author(s): Bremner, Eluned.
Contributor(s):
Title : Margery Kempe and the Critics: Disempowerment and Deconstruction [The author compares selected twentieth-century analyses of Kempe’s “Book” (written by literary critics) to episodes in the “Book” itself, in which Margery faces criticism from various figures of authority. Both the modern critics outside the text and the clerical figures within the “Book” reinforce patriarchal structures in response to Kempe, who challenges female suppression and speaks to establish her autonomy and power. Despite critics’ attempts to disempower her, Kempe refuses to accept the marginalization of female sexuality, crosses traditional gender role boundaries, and determines her own voice and social role through speech and writing. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Margery Kempe: A Book of Essays.   Edited by Sandra J. McEntire .   Garland Publishing, 1992. Chaucer Review , 27., 1 ( 1992):  Pages 117 - 135.
Year of Publication: 1992.

84. Record Number: 8726
Author(s): Quilligan, Maureen.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Name of the Author: Self-Representation in Christine de Pizan's "Livre de la cite des dames" [The article focuses on the way Christine de Pizan constructs herself as a "professional" writer by naming herself at key moments, and by making her own experience the fundamental authority in her text. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Exemplaria: A Journal of Theory in Medieval and Renaissance Studies , 4., 1 (Spring 1992):  Pages 201 - 228.
Year of Publication: 1992.

85. Record Number: 11429
Author(s): Wright, Rosemary Muir.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Virgin in the Sun and in the Tree [The author explores motifs and theological ideas which contributed to the image of the coronation of the Virgin. Wright argues that secular queenship has very little in common with this image that placed Mary above mortal women. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Women and Sovereignty.   Edited by Louise Olga Fradenburg. Cosmos: The Yearbook of the Traditional Cosmology Society, volume 7 Cosmos: The Yearbook of the Traditional Cosmology Society, 7.   Edinburgh University Press, 1992. Exemplaria: A Journal of Theory in Medieval and Renaissance Studies , 4., 1 (Spring 1992):  Pages 36 - 59.
Year of Publication: 1992.

86. Record Number: 10245
Author(s): Lawton, David.
Contributor(s):
Title : Voice, Authority, and Blasphemy in "The Book of Margery Kempe" [The author examines the importance of blasphemy in the production of literary texts in fifteenth-century England; during this time, vernacular writing was sometimes associated with heresy. While some readers fear Kempe expresses unorthodox religious ideas, the author notes that Kempe espouses orthodox views. Kempe also demonstrates a knowledge of Latin texts even though she claims to be illiterate. Ultimately, Kempe’s unique voice as a woman is preserved through the text even if her speech is mediated by a long line of male scribes and editors. Title note supplied by Feminae].
Source: Margery Kempe: A Book of Essays.   Edited by Sandra J. McEntire .   Garland Publishing, 1992. Exemplaria: A Journal of Theory in Medieval and Renaissance Studies , 4., 1 (Spring 1992):  Pages 93 - 115.
Year of Publication: 1992.

87. Record Number: 11118
Author(s): McKinley, Mary.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Subversive "Seulette" [The author briefly discusses Christine's rhetorical strategies in the "Lamentacion sur les maux de la guerre civile." While identifying herself as a "little woman, alone and apart," she persuasively but tactfully reminds the Duke of Berry of his obligations to the princes and people of France. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Politics, Gender, and Genre: The Political Thought of Christine de Pizan.   Edited by Margaret Brabant .   Westview Press, 1992. Exemplaria: A Journal of Theory in Medieval and Renaissance Studies , 4., 1 (Spring 1992):  Pages 157 - 169.
Year of Publication: 1992.

88. Record Number: 10887
Author(s): De Bingen, Hildegarde and Laurence. Moulinier
Contributor(s): Børresen, Kari Elisabeth, reviewer
Title : Gender and the Authority of Friars: The Significance of Holy Women for Thirteenth-Century Franciscans and Dominicans [In their letters and other writings, friars often reflected on their relationships with devout women. As preachers, friars exerted pastoral authority over devout women, but they also saw these particular women as having a privileged relationship with God. Although the friars admired the close relationship these women had with the divine, they also asserted their own distance and superiority over the women along the lines of gender difference. At the same time, the friars used gender difference as a means of expressing doubts about themselves and the limits of their own powers. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Church History (Full Text via JSTOR) 60, 4 (Dec. 1991): 445-460. Link Info
Year of Publication: 1991.

89. Record Number: 11066
Author(s): Brownlee, Kevin.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Image of History in Christine de Pizan’s "Livre de la Mutacion de Fortune" [Christine creates a double representation of history in this poem. In addition to relating all the great events in human history, she also presents a personal history in the form of an allegorical autobiography. This narrative fictionalizes her own development into the author of the book, as Christine presents her past self reading a sequence of wall paintings. As she narrates these images, Christine establishes her unique authority as a female poet of history, differentiating herself from the male wall-reading protagonists of the Aeneid, Roman de le Rose, the Prose Lancelot, and Dante’s Divine Comedy. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Yale French Studies (Full Text via JSTOR) (1991): 44-56. Special Editions: Style and Values in Medieval Art and Literature.Link Info
Year of Publication: 1991.

90. Record Number: 11199
Author(s): Hagen, Susan K.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Wife of Bath: Chaucer’s Inchoate Experiment in Feminist Hermeneutics [Although the Wife of Bath seems to represent the perspective of a real woman, she is in fact a fiction created by a male poet. Through the Wife of Bath, Chaucer tries to imagine how to represent a woman’s personal, secular experience when it does not coincide with what religious authorities claim a woman’s experience should be. In order to justify and relate her worldly experience, the Wife of Bath differentiates between religious and secular types of authority, interprets Scripture in her own way, and adopts a feminine, non-linear narrative style. In spite of these literary experiments, Chaucer ultimately fails to escape misogynist ways of thinking. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Rebels and rivals: the contestive spirit in The Canterbury tales.   Edited by Susanna Greer Fein, David Raybin, and Peter C. Braeger Studies in medieval culture .   Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 1991.  Pages 105 - 124.
Year of Publication: 1991.

91. Record Number: 11084
Author(s): Johnson, Lynn Staley.
Contributor(s):
Title : The Trope of the Scribe and the Question of Literary Authority in the Works of Julian of Norwich and Margery Kempe [The author examines “scribal metaphors” and the figure of the scribe as they relate to women authors and literary authority in the works of Margery Kempe and Julian of Norwich. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Speculum , 66., 4 ( 1991):  Pages 820 - 838.
Year of Publication: 1991.

92. Record Number: 10679
Author(s): Elliott, Dylan.
Contributor(s):
Title : Dress as Mediator Between Inner and Outer Self: The Pious Matron of the High and Later Middle ages [Clothing often served as a saint's way of signifying the discrepancy between her percieved social standing (according to secular values) and her own individual selfhood (one based on spiritual beliefs). For married female saints, clothing was an even more complex form of symbolism as it often thwarted the wife's expected subordination to her husband while also projecting an image of virginity which was at odds with a married social persona. During the later Middle Ages, clergy began to endorse efforts to restrict the clothing of laywomen in order to maintain husbands' supremacy over their pious wives. Title note supplied by Feminae.]
Source: Mediaeval Studies , 53., ( 1991):  Pages 279 - 308.
Year of Publication: 1991.

93. Record Number: 11054
Author(s): Kelso, Carl, Jr.
Contributor(s):
Title : Women in Power: Fontevrault and the Paraclete Compared [The author argues that the Paraclet under Heloise shared many similarities with Fontevrault. Most importantly both institutions and their daughter houses were independent, not being affiliated with any monastic order and using their own rules. Both called for strong abbesses who held authority even over male functionaries. With their emphasis on female responsibility, both houses made provisions for noncloistered nuns to do business with the world. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Comitatus , 22., ( 1991):  Pages 55 - 69.
Year of Publication: 1991.

94. Record Number: 11193
Author(s): Blumenfeld-Kosinski, Renate
Contributor(s):
Title : Christine de Pizan and the Misogynistic Tradition [In her poetry, Christine de Pizan refutes the misogynist literary tradition exemplified by such texts as the Roman de la Rose. She confronts misogyny on three fronts: reason, experience, and writing. In her allegorical poems, Lady Reason encourages the author to reconsider common notions about women. The poet’s own experience allows her to give many counter examples to misogynist texts. Most importantly, Christine’s scholarly acts of reading and writing generate numerous examples of feminine virtue from books that previous writers have ignored. Reprinted in The Selected Writings of Christine de Pizan: New Translations, Criticism. Edited by Renate Blumenfeld-Kosinski. Pages 297-311. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
Source: Romanic Review , 81., 3 ( 1990):  Pages 279 - 292. Reprinted in The Selected Writings of Christine de Pizan: New Translations, Criticism. Edited by Renate Blumenfeld-Kosinski. Translated by Renate Blumenfeld-Kosinski and Kevin Brownlee. W. W. Norton & Company, 1997. Pages 297-311.
Year of Publication: 1990.