Feminae: Medieval Women and Gender Index


  • Record Number: 9968
  • Author(s)/Creator(s): Bergman , Robert P.
  • Contributor(s):
  • Title: The Earliest Eleousa: A Coptic Ivory in the Walters Gallery [The author sets the date of the ivory Virgin and Child between the late sixth and early seventh century, and the iconography of the sculpture (which resembles other ivories carved in a similar style) confirms its attribution to an early Christian Egyptian workshop. Title note supplied by Feminae.].
  • Source: Journal of the Walters Art Gallery 48, ( 1990): Pages 37 - 56.
  • Description:
  • Article Type: Journal Article
  • Subject (See Also): Art History- Sculpture Coptic Literature Iconography Icons Ivories Jesus Christ in Art Mary, Virgin, Saint and Child in Art Mary, Virgin, Saint as the Virgin Hodegetria, Named for the Famous Icon of the Virgin Believed to Have Been Painted by Saint Luke M
  • Geographic Area: Northern Africa
  • Century: 6-7
  • Related Resources:
  • Primary Evidence: Sculpture; Virgin and Child, ivory, Baltimore, Walters Art Gallery, no. 71.297. Depiction of the Virgin holding the infant Jesus in a check to check embrace, carved onto the convex surface of a single piece of tusk. Semicircular shape of the ivory makes it a free st
  • Illustrations: Twenty Six Figures. Figure One "Virgin and Child," ivory, Baltimore, Walters Art Gallery, no. 71.297. Sculpture depicts the Virgin holding the infant Jesus in a check to check embrace. Figure Two "Virgin and Child," ivory, Baltimore, Walters Art Gallery, no. 71.297 (from the right). View of sculpture from the right reveals an elongated, robed figure standing to the left of the infant Christ. Figure Three "Virgin and Child," ivory, Baltimore, Walters Art Gallery, no. 71.297 (from the left). View of ~~sculpture from the left reveals an elongated, robed figure standing to the right of the Virgin. Figure Four "Virgin and Child," ivory, Baltimore, Walters Art Gallery, no. 71.297 (from the top). View of sculpture from the top reveals an oval acanthus leaf pattern and a rectangular indentation carved in the center. Figure Five "Virgin and Child," ivory, Milan, Museo d'Arti Applicate (Castello Sforzesco), no. 16. Sculpture depicts the Virgin with the nimbed Christ child seated on her knee with His left hand holding a scroll and His right hand in a gesture of benediction. Figure Six "Virgin ~~and Child," ivory, Milan, Museo d'Arti Applicate (Castello Sforzesco), no. 16 (from the right). View of sculpture from the right reveals two robed figures with arms extended standing to the left of the Virgin. Figure Seven "Virgin and Child," ivory, Milan, Museo d'Arti Applicate (Castello Sforzesco), no. 16 (from the left). View of sculpture from the left reveals ~~two small robed figures to the right of the Virgin and Child. Figure Eight "Ascension," ivory, New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, no. 17.190.46. Sculpture depicts Christ in majesty in a cloud floating above figures ~~standing below. Figure Nine "Ascension," ivory, New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, no. 17.190.47. Fragment of sculpture depicts Christ in majesty in a cloud attended by a winged angel at His left foot. Figure Ten "Rider," ivory plaque, sixth century, mounted on ambo of Henry II, Aachen ~~Cathedral. Sculpture depicts an armored knight on horseback holding a spear while two animals fight at his feet. Figure Eleven "Warrior," ivory plaque, sixth century, mounted on ambo of Henry II, Aachen Cathedral. Sculpture depicts a armored man with a shield and a small angel standing on his right shoulder. Figure Twelve "Bacchus," ivory plaque, sixth century, mounted on ambo of Henry II, Aachen Cathedral. Sculpture depicts a nude man with his right arm raised, surrounded by grape vines. Figure Thirteen "Bacchus," ~~ivory plaque, sixth century, mounted on ambo of Henry II, Aachen Cathedral. Sculpture depicts a nude man with his right arm raised, surrounded by grape vines. Figure Fourteen "Isis," ivory plaque, sixth ~~century, mounted on ambo of Henry II, Aachen Cathedral. Sculpture depicts a ~~woman in a flowing robe surrounded by numerous figures. Figure Fifteen "Nereid," ivory plaque, sixth century, mounted on ambo of Henry II, Aachen Cathedral. Sculpture depicts a seated female figure with her breasts exposed surrounded by an unclothed male figure and female figure. Figure Sixteen "Galaktotrophousa," 892-893, New York, Pierpont Morgan Library, M.612, fol. 1v. Manuscript Illumination depicts the Virgin seated at a ~~throne with the Christ child on her right knee, and the pair are attended by winged angels on either side. Figure Seventeen "Galaktotrophousa," 897-898, New York, Pierpont Morgan Library, M.574, fol. 2r. Manuscript Illumination depicts the Virgin seated at a throne with the Christ child on ~~her right knee, and the pair are attended by winged angels on either side. Figure Eighteen Ornamental fragments, ivory, fifth to sixth century, Berlin, formerly Kaiser Friedrich Museum, nos. 3881 and 3882 (now destroyed). Fragments feature a pattern of acanthus leaves with oval ~~terminals. Figure Nineteen "Virgin and Child with Angels," limestone, Cairo, Coptic Museum, no. 8006 (M.E. 8704). Sculpture depicts the virgin seated on a throne with the Christ child on her lap, with one angel ~~standing to the right and one to the left of her. Figure Twenty "Four Saints and a Penitent," fresco, Saqqara, Monastery of~~Apa Jeremiah, Cell A, North Wall. Painting depicts four unidentified haloed figures, with a bearded figure kneeling at the feet of one of them. Figure Twenty One "Adoration of the Magi and Nativity," ivory, London, British Museum, ivory cat. no. 14. Sculpture depicts the Virgin seated with the ~~Christ child on her lap, attended by haloed figures (above), and the Magi visiting the Christ child (below). Figure Twenty Two "Virgin and Child (Virgin of Vladimir),"tempera on panel, Moscow, Tretyakov Gallery, no. 14.243. Painting depicts the Virgin holding the Christ child in a cheek to cheek embrace; she cradles the infant with her left hand. Figure Twenty ~~Three "Galaktotrophousa," fresco, Saqqara, Monastery of Apa Jeremiah, Cell A, Aspe. Painting depicts the Virgin seated beneath an archway with the Christ child sitting on her right knee. Figure Twenty Four "Eleousa," fresco, about 650, Rome, Santa Maria Antiqua (reconstruction drawing by Per Jonas Nordhagen). Fresco originally featured a standing robed, haloed Virgin. Figure Twenty Five "Virgin and Child," Book of Kells, Dublin, Trinity College Library, MS 58 A.I.6, fol. 7v. Manuscript Illumination depicts the Virgin seated and attended by winged angels as she cradles the Christ child with both arms upon her right knee. Figure Twenty Six "Virgin and Child and Christ Pantocrator," wool tapestry, Cleveland, Cleveland Museum of Art, no. 67.144. Tapestry features the Virgin seated and attended by winged angels with the Christ child sitting in her lap (below); Christ sits in majesty in a cloud attended by winged angels (above).
  • Table:
  • Abstract:
  • Author's Affiliation: Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore
  • Conference Info: - , -
  • Year of Publication: 1990.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN/ISBN: 00837156
  • Material/Technique :
  • Rights: